Browsing by Author "Brown, Barbara"
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- ItemOpen Access2 Chapter Two -- Optimum Learning Literature Synthesis: What is Optimum Learning?(2019-06-30) Friesen, Sharon; Brown, Barbara; Brandon, JimThis synthesis of the literature is designed to undergird our 4-university longitudinal mixed methods study Optimum Learning for All Students Implementing Alberta’s 2018 Professional Practice Standards. Our ambition is to gain insights into how and how well Alberta’s Teaching Quality Standard, Leadership Quality Standard, and Superintendent Leadership Quality Standard are being put into place, how the standards are impacting practice, and what changes occur over time in teaching and learning. Indeed, our longitudinal design is premised on “uncovering sustained changes and implementation success” (Derrington, 2019, p. 8). Given this, our goals in preparing this manuscript were to (a) synthesize scholarship on policy processes so that we can situate our inquiry into the standards in a process-oriented way; (b) provide a jurisdictional review of standards-based approaches to teaching and leadership and what we know to be effective with respect to this approach so that we can discern how Alberta’s standards and pathways to certification are positioned compared to others who have gone before us; and (c) synthesize scholarship that demonstrates the link between the professional practice standards and quality teaching and leadership so that we are anchored to evidence when interpreting the forthcoming empirical data. Considering the comprehensiveness of the professional practice standards, we covered the waterfront, so to speak. But though we plumbed many strands and sources of knowledge, we do not claim it to be exhaustive or necessarily complete.
- ItemOpen Access6 Chapter Six -- Optimum Learning Literature Synthesis: What is Quality Teaching?(2019-06-30) Brandon, Jim; Parsons, Dennis; Brown, Barbara; Friesen, Sharon; Thomas, Christy; Delanoy, NadiaThis synthesis of the literature is designed to undergird our 4-university longitudinal mixed methods study Optimum Learning for All Students Implementing Alberta’s 2018 Professional Practice Standards. Our ambition is to gain insights into how and how well Alberta’s Teaching Quality Standard, Leadership Quality Standard, and Superintendent Leadership Quality Standard are being put into place, how the standards are impacting practice, and what changes occur over time in teaching and learning. Indeed, our longitudinal design is premised on “uncovering sustained changes and implementation success” (Derrington, 2019, p. 8). Given this, our goals in preparing this manuscript were to (a) synthesize scholarship on policy processes so that we can situate our inquiry into the standards in a process-oriented way; (b) provide a jurisdictional review of standards-based approaches to teaching and leadership and what we know to be effective with respect to this approach so that we can discern how Alberta’s standards and pathways to certification are positioned compared to others who have gone before us; and (c) synthesize scholarship that demonstrates the link between the professional practice standards and quality teaching and leadership so that we are anchored to evidence when interpreting the forthcoming empirical data. Considering the comprehensiveness of the professional practice standards, we covered the waterfront, so to speak. But though we plumbed many strands and sources of knowledge, we do not claim it to be exhaustive or necessarily complete.
- ItemOpen AccessA Social Ecological Approach to Leading Student Resilience: A Qualitative Multiple Case Study in Alberta Charter Schools(2017) Hooper, Christopher, Charles; Brandon, Jim; Handford, Victoria; Mendaglio, Salvatore; Simmons, Marlon; Brown, BarbaraThe phenomenon of how school leaders understand and foster the development of resilience in students is important yet there is limited research in this area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore this phenomenon in Alberta Charter Schools (ACS) using a qualitative, multiple case study approach (Stake, 2006; Merriam, 1998). A purposeful sample composed of 20 ACS leaders from five different schools participated in the study during the 2016-17 school year. The data collection methods included semi-structured principal interviews, focus groups of school leaders, document reviews, and field notes/observations. The cross-case analysis was guided by the quintain, how school leadership bolsters resilience in students, and the study’s conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The cross-case analysis revealed five key cross-case themes. ACS leaders: (a) understood student resilience was shaped by internal and external protective factors, (b) understood resilience in terms of understanding the concept of risk, (c) fostered the development of resilience through distributed leadership, (d) fostered the development of resilience through an emphasis upon teacher learning and development, and (e) fostered the development of resilience through strategic resourcing. The transferability of this study’s findings is discussed and implications for policy, leadership practice, and educational leadership research are presented. Key words: School leadership, student resilience, multiple case study, Alberta Charter Schools
- ItemOpen AccessAlberta Research Partnerships: Lessons Learned & Guiding Questions for Partners(2021-06-14) Brown, BarbaraThis document provides six lessons learned in research partnerships that were shared with Alberta Education, Research Partnerships Program, Cohort 4 Grant Recipients on June 14, 2021. These key lessons emerged from the author’s involvement in partnership projects, literature in the field, and a two-year research study involving the first cohort group. With each lesson, a few guiding questions are provided for project teams to consider in support of their collaborative research activities.
- ItemOpen AccessAsynchronous Discussion Forums: Five Learning Designs(2021-04-30) Hartwell, Amber; Anderson, Maya; Hanlon, Patrick; Brown, BarbaraThis working document is for practitioners designing for blended or online learning modalities and using discussion forums to engage students in collaborative knowledge-building. Five learning designs and approaches for the reader’s consideration are illustrated. Each approach highlights some possibilities, requirements, challenges, possible scenarios, and related literature references. With each scenario, consideration for context (class size, location, etc.), pedagogical approach, and resource accessibility is recommended.
- ItemOpen AccessA Case Study of High School Leadership Teams Managing Team Turnover(2022-05-27) van der Meer, Keith; Brown, Barbara; Chua, Catherine; Jacobsen, MicheleSchool leaders and leadership teams can positively impact a school environment. The reality of persistent leadership turnover in schools, however, challenges the capacity of school leaders to sustain learning improvement and change. Turnover on leadership teams has been linked with negative impacts on student performance and can have deleterious effects on school growth and progress. Given the paucity of research on leadership team effectiveness in response to turnover, and in consideration of the potential negative impact leadership turnover can have in schools, it is important to look more closely at teams that are effectively negotiating this change. This study focused on school leadership team actions in response to turnover. The researcher utilized a thematic cross-case analysis of three senior high leadership teams in three different school divisions in Southern Alberta that had experienced turnover within the last five years. Perception surveys were used to select leadership teams who identified their leadership actions as successful. Each team member selected for the study participated in semi-structured interviews to determine which specific actions were resultant in effective leadership practice. Five elements of leadership team coherence were considered as part of the study: mission and vision, culture, trust, instructional leadership, and distributed leadership. Results of the research highlighted the importance of leadership team coherence and the establishment of trust. Additionally, it was found that the context of the school played an important role in determining what aspects of leadership were most important for team function. Considering the elements of leadership team coherence and the importance of trust and context, results of the study offer implications for current senior high leadership teams and make further recommendations for ongoing research surrounding effective actions of leadership teams.
- ItemOpen AccessChildren's Use of Social Media and their Elementary Principals’ Perceptions and Leadership Practices Pertaining to This Usage: A Case Study in One School District in British Columbia(2020-01-17) Sanbrooks, Jeremy J.; Mendaglio, Sal; Brown, Barbara; Brandon, Jim; Spencer, Brenda L.; Hagerman, Michelle SchiraChildren are using social media in and out of school. School principals are struggling to deal with problems (e.g., cyberbullying, sexting, privacy issues, depression) associated with young people using social media. Research related to teen use of social media and misuse of social media is available; however, in comparison, fewer studies have examined how younger children are using social media. The purpose of this qualitative case study was twofold: to understand (a) social media use among 9-to-11-year-old children and, (b) the influences on elementary school principals' leadership practices pertaining to children's social media usage. There were three methods used to collect data in this study: student surveys, student focus groups, and principal interviews. The data were coded and organized according to the research questions. Analysis and interpretation of findings were organized by way of examining the key research questions: (a) What social media platforms are children most using? (b) How and why are children using social media? (c) What are elementary principals' perceptions of children's social media usage? and (d) What leadership practices are elementary principals using to promote positive student social media usage? This research revealed that the children in this study tended to use YouTube, TikTok, and gaming platforms to actively engage with social media. This research also revealed that problems associated with young people and social media are spilling into elementary schools and the elementary principals in this study are using both proactive and reactive leadership practices to promote positive social media usage with their students. The study concludes by offering suggestions that may be useful in the work of promoting positive social media usage with children.
- ItemOpen AccessDesigning a Protocol for Developmental Observation of Online Teaching(2020-07-06) Mahdavi, Flora; Lock, Jennifer V.; Brown, Barbara; Koh, Kim H.Many higher education institutions in Canada have identified a lack of professional development and pedagogical support for faculty and their resistance as significant barriers to implementation and growth of online education. This study focused on the observation of online teaching as a way of providing ongoing pedagogical support to online instructors to enhance their professional development. Though teaching observation in face-to-face classrooms for purposes of evaluation or development has received extensive attention from scholars, this method of support in the online learning environments is novel and understudied. Using an iterative design-based research methodology, a protocol for developmental observation of online teaching (DOOT) was designed, refined and evaluated. This process aimed to respond to the question of how such a protocol supports the professional growth of online instructors at a community college setting. The study was conducted at a community college in Western Canada involving the participation of online instructors from the School of Business of the college, as observed instructors, and educational developers from the Teaching and Learning unit of the college, as observers. During different stages of the study, participants provided feedback on the feasibility of the DOOT Protocol, identified their contextual needs, and took part in piloting the initial Protocol and evaluating the Protocol at the last phase of the study. The six key elements of the DOOT Protocol were identified as 1) a clear developmental purpose, 2) clarity of process design and scope, 3) a definition of observable online teaching, 4) observer skills and orientation, 5) engaging in critical reflection, and 6) planning follow-up steps. To effectively facilitate the DOOT process, educational developers need to have skills and knowledge in theory and practice of online teaching, navigating technology that is the medium of the online education, and facilitation. Though all participants reported benefits from taking part in the DOOT observations during the pilot and evaluation of the Protocol, critical reflection and successful follow-up planning was evident when online instructors recognized reflection as a means for incremental improvements and educational developers demonstrated strong facilitation skills. The main contribution of the study is an evidence-based protocol that could be used for developmental observation of online teaching within a relatively short time frame that leads to incremental developmental plans. This study has responded to the challenge of elasticity of time in observation of online teaching, which is not limited to the traditional classroom time frames. Further, observable online teaching for the context of the study was defined based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) theoretical framework for online education (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000). More research in other contexts can increase transferability of the findings of this study to other types of higher education institutions to adopt the DOOT Protocol as a means for providing ongoing pedagogical support to online instructors.
- ItemOpen AccessDesigning for Technology-Enabled Learning Environments(2021-08-02) Hartwell, Amber; Brown, Barbara; Hanlon, PatrickThis working document is for instructors designing technology-enabled learning environments. Six possible approaches for course delivery consideration are illustrated. Each approach highlights some possibilities, requirements, challenges, scenarios, and related literature references. With each scenario, consideration for context (class size, location, etc.), pedagogical approach, and resource accessibility is recommended.
- ItemOpen AccessEssayons: French as a Second Language Teacher Beliefs and Experiences of Technology-Enhanced Practices(2017) Smith, Cameron; Roy, Sylvie; Roessingh, Hetty; Brown, BarbaraWhile past research has identified the importance of teacher beliefs in informing practice, fewer studies have investigated the context of Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) teachers in recent years (Lapkin, Mady, & Arnott, 2009; Lawrence, 2014). By considering how practicing FSL teachers in Alberta experience the integration of technology in second language learning, I sought to contribute a current understanding of these influences. Through an interpretive lens, I explored the context of four FSL teachers in an urban school board in southern Alberta. In an instrumental multicase study, qualitative data were collected through semistructured individual interviews, and analyzed using simultaneous thematic coding. The participants’ responses revealed that while current trends in technology integration seem to align well with these teachers’ beliefs, numerous barriers, including the treatment and status of FSL programs in the board, were seen as ongoing challenges in enacting their vision for their professional practice.
- ItemOpen AccessEthical Use of Technology in Digital Learning Environments: Graduate Student Perspectives(2021-01-12) Brown, Barbara; Roberts, Verena; Jacobsen, Michele; Hurrell, Christie; Kerr, Kourtney; van Struen, Heather; Neutzling, Nicole; Lowry, Jeff; Zarkovic, Simo; Ansorger, Jennifer; Marles, Terri; Lockyer, Emma; Parthenis, DeanThis book is the result of a co-design project in a class in the Masters of Education program at the University of Calgary. The course, and the resulting book, focus primarily on the safe and ethical use of technology in digital learning environments. The course was organized according to four topics based on Farrow’s (2016) Framework for the Ethics of Open Education.
- ItemOpen AccessEthical Use of Technology in Digital Learning Environments: Graduate Student Perspectives, Volume 2(University of Calgary, 2021-12-22) Brown, Barbara; Roberts, Verena; Jacobsen, Michele; Hurrell, Christie; Travers-Hayward, Mia; Neutzling, Nicole; Templeman, Joel; Steeves, Marcia; Hendrickson, Rob; Luinstra, David; Humphreys, Lindsay; Dunham, Lacey; Maciach, MichaelThis book is the result of a co-design project in a class in the Masters of Education program at the University of Calgary. The course, and the resulting book, focus primarily on the safe and ethical use of technology in digital learning environments, and is the second volume in the series. The course was organized according to four topics based on Farrow’s (2016) Framework for the Ethics of Open Education. Students were asked to review, analyze, and synthesize each topic from three meta-ethical theoretical positions: deontological, consequentialist, and virtue ethical (Farrow, 2016). The chapters in this open educational resource (OER) were co-designed using a participatory pedagogy with the intention to share and mobilize knowledge with a broader audience. The first section, comprised of four chapters, focuses on topics relating to well-being in technology-enabled learning environments, including the use of web cameras, eproctoring software, video games, and access to broadband connectivity. The second section focuses on privacy and autonomy of learners and citizens in a variety of contexts from schools to clinical settings. In each of the seven chapters, the authors discuss the connection to the value of technology in education, and practical possibilities of learning technologies for inclusive, participatory, democratic, and pluralistic educational paradigms. The book concludes with reflections from the course instructor gained over two iterations of teaching the course. This is a static version of the text; the live Pressbook can be accessed via https://openeducationalberta.ca/educationaltechnologyethics2/
- ItemOpen AccessExamining Educators' Perceptions About Teaching Students Identified with Reading Disabilities(2022-07-22) Funke Robinson, Kirstin; Lock, Jennifer; Brown, Barbara; Chu, Man-Wai; Friesen, Sharon; Specht, JacquelineThe purpose of this study was to explore the influence of secondary sociocultural artifacts on educators’ perceptions about teaching students identified with reading disabilities (RD). This investigation offered an alternative to traditional special education research by considering sociocultural influences, rather than emphasizing innate characteristics within students. A definitive conceptual model that explained how secondary sociocultural artifacts shape educators’ perceptions of teaching students identified with RD was not found in a review of related literature. Therefore, a specific examination of these perceptions of educators as situated within the unique context within which they were employed was sought. Using a descriptive case study design, a detailed account of the themes within sociocultural artifacts and the perceptions of educators across various roles were gathered within one school district. Since RD tends to be identified in late elementary grades, educators with responsibilities for grades 4-7 were included. Data were gathered across three phases using the methods of document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews. Twelve participants completed the questionnaires and six participants completed interviews. Four major findings were identified from this study. First, the contents of the secondary sociocultural artifacts salient to this school district aligned with either a special or an inclusive education model. Second, classroom teachers’ perspectives on reading disabilities aligned with a fixed deficit model overall, rationalized by their personal experiences with artifacts of special education. Third, classroom teachers’ beliefs about their own self-efficacy to teach students identified with RD varied, based on different aspects emphasized in their reflections on teaching students identified with RD. Fourth, those artifacts aligned with special education were perceived as inhibiting classroom teaching of students identified with RD. The findings from this study contributed to a conceptual framework for how secondary sociocultural artifacts shape educators’ perceptions. Given the important influence of educators’ perceptions on their actual practices, this study was critical to understand how to stimulate actions aimed at improving teaching practices for students identified with RD.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring English Language Learning Experiences of Adult Chinese Immigrants(2023-09-03) Pang, Jinping; Kawalilak, Colleen; Brown, Barbara; Danyluk, PatriciaAdult Chinese immigrants face many challenges in transition experiences when moving to Canada. Good English language proficiency is essential for integration into Canadian society as it determines educational and employment opportunities. Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) programs are government-funded programs that support immigrants in improving their English language levels and in understanding Canadian culture. The purpose of this research is to have an in-depth understanding of adult Chinese immigrants’ transition experiences in Canada to help policymakers and instructors more effectively understand and support this demographic in their transition experiences. I employ a qualitative and descriptive single case study to explore and describe this aspect through the lens of the 4S System of transition theory, which consists of Self, Situation, Strategies, and Support. Employing semi-structured interviews, four participants were selected for the research through a purposeful sampling method. The gathered data was then analyzed through the lens of the 4S System, which incorporates the themes of transitions, inner strengths, strategies, and support. The research results found that participants’ inner strengths, such as optimism, supported them in dealing with transitions. Research results also showed the importance of a strong support system, such as government, institutions, community, friends, and family in helping Chinese immigrants deal with transitions.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring Online Pedagogies for Social Connectedness and Advancing Professional Collaboration: Research Brief(2022-08) Hartwell, Amber; Nogueira, Bruna; Thomas, Christy; Brown, BarbaraThis research brief describes a research project funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Insight Development Grant in 2021. The research explored how instructors from two teacher education programs designed online group work to promote pre-service teachers’ professional collaboration skills and connectedness. Data collection involved surveys, interviews, and a review of course documents related to group work in online courses.
- ItemOpen AccessFlipped Learning Across Multiple Disciplines(2022-12-31) Delanoy, Nadia; El-Hacha, Jasmine; Miller, Monica; Brown, BarbaraThis study is an extension of the previous year's pilot in math classes and was designed as a research partnership project and a collaboration among researchers from the Werklund School of Education at the University of Calgary and practitioners from Almadina Language Charter Academy including learning coaches and teachers. The focus of the research was to engage and support students in science, math, and social studies classes in the elementary and junior high campuses in using flipped learning. Over these two years, the application of a flipped learning model has been timely given it has occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic and considered to be a good choice as a medium to support students at home as well as in the classroom.
- ItemOpen AccessFlipped Learning in Junior High Math Classes: Almadina Language Charter Academy Research Brief(2021-08) Webster, Mark; Delanoy, Nadia; Brown, BarbaraThis study was designed as a research partnership project and a collaboration among researchers from the Werklund School of Education at the University of Calgary and practitioners from Almadina Language Charter Academy, a school authority with a unique emphasis on meeting the needs of English language learners. The purpose of this study was to explore how a technology-enhanced pedagogy, such as a flipped classroom intervention, can support students in grade seven and nine mathematics. The flipped learning method offered an entry point for students to be introduced to mathematical concepts with an aim to increase disciplinary literacy prior to in-class work. The focus of the design-based study was to work in partnership with teachers and students in two junior high mathematics classes using flipped learning to help iteratively develop instruments for data collection, including a framework for teacher reflection and questionnaires for students, and a process for reviewing video analytics. Findings from this study demonstrated the participants were satisfied with the approach for improving mathematical understanding and problem-solving skills. Using a flipped learning approach was also timely during the COVID-19 pandemic and participants considered this a helpful medium for supporting students at home and students in the classroom. A future study could continue exploring the flipped learning approach by extending to other disciplinary areas and grades.
- ItemOpen AccessFostering Collaborative Learning in an Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Education Course(2019-04) Brown, Barbara; Thomas, Christy; Hill, Joshua; Alonso-Yañez, GabrielaAn interdisciplinary approach to designing lessons requires collaboration among teachers. In undergraduate programs in education, faculty often assign group tasks and students struggle with negotiating ideas and effectively engaging in collaborative learning with peers. In this study, researchers used repeated surveys and social network analysis to examine pre-service teachers’ peer-group interactions while co-designing an interdisciplinary unit plan. Findings suggest effective relationships are needed to support collaborative learning, peer leaders can support collaborative learning and instructors can make leadership roles and strategies visible to help manage collaboration including how to use technology to support collaborative learning. Findings from the first year of this design-based research study serve to develop recommendations for teaching and learning strategies that will tested over the next year.
- ItemOpen AccessFostering Student Success in Online Courses(Taylor Institute for Teaching and Learning, 2023) Aparicio-Ting, Fabiola; Arcellana-Panlilio, Mayi; Bensler, Heather; Brown, Barbara; Clancy, Tracey; Dyjur, Patti; Radford, Scott; Redwood, Chene; Roberts, Verena; Sabbaghan, Soroush; Schroeder, Meadow; Summers, Mindi; Tézli, Annette; Wilks, Leighton; Wright, AlysiaThe pandemic had a disruptive impact on teaching and learning in higher education. For many, the transition to online learning presented enormous challenges, individually and collectively. Many of us sought immediate strategies to support student learning and success in an online context. We experienced many successes and failures along the way. This Guide provides an inspiring collection of scholarly reflections and approaches to supporting meaningful course learning opportunities for students and postsecondary educators, in online environments. The guide contains nine chapters contributed by members of the Teaching Academy from across disciplines involved in undergraduate and/or graduate instruction, writing solo or with collaborators, to highlight an aspect of their teaching that leverages the online environment to enhance student learning. Each of these chapters offers sage, pragmatic descriptions of course contexts, design considerations, and implementation, for online assessments (Chapter 1, 4), for innovative learning activities (Chapter 2, 6), for flexible course design (Chapter 5, 7), for engaging large classes (Chapter 8), for facilitating group work (Chapter 9), and for intentionally addressing the need for students to flourish (Chapter 3). Importantly, for the reader, each chapter shares the wisdom of practice of the author/s, discussing implications of use and giving concrete recommendations for those who are thinking of applying similar strategies.
- ItemOpen AccessGraduate student research manual: Focus groups and interviews(2017-08-25) Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Brown, BarbaraThis manual is a practical training guide for Masters of Education students (referred to graduate-student researchers) in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to students working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to support graduate-student researchers on how to plan and conduct focus groups and interviews for qualitative research in the field of education. This manual is evidence-informed and includes additional references for researchers and research assistants to further develop their understanding of how to work successfully on a qualitative research project that collects data through focus groups.