Browsing by Author "Gaines, Brian R."
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- ItemOpen AccessA concept map based approach to the shared workspace(1993) Kremer, Robert; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessA Principled analogical tool: based on evaluations of partial correspondences over conceptual graphs(1989) Leishman, Deborah; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessBASING KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION TOOLS IN PERSONAL CONSTRUCT PSYCHOLOGY(1991-11-01) Gaines, Brian R.; Shaw, Mildred L.G.Personal construct psychology is a theory of individual and group psychological and social processes that has been used extensively in knowledge acquisition research to model the cognitive processes of human experts. The psychology has the advantage of taking a constructivist position appropriate to the modeling of specialist human knowledge but basing this on a positivist scientific position that characterizes human conceptual structures in axiomatic terms that translate directly to computational form. The repertory grid knowledge elicitation methodology is directly derived from personal construct psychology. In its original form, this methodology was based on the notion of dichotomous constructs and did not encompass the ordinal relations between them captured in semantic net elicitation. However, it was extended in successive tools developed for applied knowledge acquisition and tested in a wide variety of applications. This paper gives an overview of personal construct psychology and its expression as an intensional logic describing the cognitive processes of anticipatory agents, and uses this to survey knowledge acquisition tools deriving from personal construct psychology and to suggest how future tool architectures may be designed in an integrated fashion within this framework.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a mediator system on the World-Wide Web to model the concurrent manufacturing life cycle(1995) Lapsley, Andrew Zoltan; Gaines, Brian R.; Norrie, Douglas H.
- ItemOpen AccessELICITING KNOWLEDGE AND TRANSFERRING IT EFFECTIVELY TO A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM(1991-11-01) Gaines, Brian R.; Shaw, Mildred L.G.The knowledge acquisition bottleneck impeding the development of expert systems is being alleviated by the development of computer-based knowledge acquisition tools. These work directly with experts to elicit knowledge, and structure it appropriately to operate as a decision support tool within an expert system. However, the elicitation of expert knowledge and its effective transfer to a useful knowledge-based system is complex and involves a diversity of activities. This paper illustrates the complete development of a decision support system using knowledge acquisition tools. The example is simple enough to be completely analyzed but exhibits enough real-world characteristics to give significant insights into the processes and problems of knowledge engineering.
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluating alternative approaches to knowledge acquisition for an expert system(1994) Madan, Munish; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessGroup writer: a word processor for collaborative document preparation(1991) Malcolm, Nicholas; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessLOCALES FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING(1998-01-01) Herlea, Daniela E.; Shaw, Mildred L.G.; Gaines, Brian R.This paper presents an approach to the social interaction in requirements engineering. Giddens' concept of a sociological locale, defined as the setting for interaction, is used in understanding the interaction of people negotiating requirements. The creation of requirements engineering locales in a physical environment and the implications for designing virtual requirements engineering locales are discussed. Lessons learned from an informal study of a virtual requirements engineering environment are presented and challenges for designing computer support to requirements engineering locales are addressed.
- ItemOpen AccessModeling the internet as cyberorganism: a living systems framework and investigative methodologies for virtual cooperative interaction(1997) Chen, Li-Jen Chen; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessPrinciples for situated actions in designing virtual realities(1992) Sharp, Maurice; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessProgramming distributed collaboration interaction through the world wide web(1997) Flores-Mendez, Roberto Augusto; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessSIMBIOSYS: a class framework for biological simulations(1994) McFadzean, David; Gaines, Brian R.
- ItemOpen AccessSTOCHASTIC COMPUTING IN NEURAL NETWORKS(1987-08-01) Gaines, Brian R.; Cleary, John G.In conventional information systems uncertainty in information is regarded as "noise", and treated as a problem. In neural networks, however, uncertainty is an intrinsic feature of much of the information processing, with many of the computations involving the deliberate injection of stochastic processes. This paper analyzes uncertainty in information representation and processing in terms of the benefits arising, their theoretical foundations, their practical applications, and their hardware implementation. It gives a new perspective on network computations and the information involved. As an example of this approach the paper analyzes the representation of analog quantities by stochastic sequences of bits. Benefits of this approach are both theoretical and practical. Realization of communication links between units is greatly simplified and the number of wires needed in interconnecting VLSI chips correspondingly reduced. The hardware realization of basic operations on analog quantities is very simple, for example, in some cases a single and-gate can be used as a multiplier. The stochastic approach also gives elegant solutions to problems including learning, representation of system controllers, uncertain inference, and partial differential equations.