Browsing by Author "Hodgins, David"
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- ItemEmbargoA Life Course and Socio-Ecological Evaluation of Gambling Behaviours Among Older Adults(2023-09-07) Gorenko, Julie Ann; Konnert, Candace A.; Hodgins, David; O'Neill, ThomasBackground: Problem gambling measures require evaluation for age equivalence in older adults. Accurate measurement is necessary for understanding factors related to later-life gambling, including unique circumstances that may increase vulnerability to problem gambling (e.g., life events, worsening health, changing social contexts). Research with older gamblers that incorporates the intersection between individual, social, and social life course factors is limited. Methods: Utilizing older adult samples from existing longitudinal datasets, three studies examined: (1) the psychometric properties of the commonly used Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) using classical test theory approaches; (2) if responses to PGSI items differ by age, gender, and problem gambling severity using Rasch modeling; and (3) the between- and within-person influence of life events on gambling frequency and PGSI scores, accounting for individual and social factors using multilevel modeling. Results: Study 1 found that the PGSI had a single-factor structure, which was invariant between genders; good internal consistency; and concurrent validity with overall gambling frequency, and frequency of electronic gaming machine (EGM) use, bingo, and instant win tickets. In Study 2, all but three PGSI items demonstrated appropriate fit to the Rasch model; the PGSI does not appear to differentiate older persons across the problem gambling severity continuum (may not identify less severe problems in older gamblers); and there were differences in item functioning between older and younger adults. Study 3 showed that PGSI scores decreased in older age; were higher in women; were positively related to stressful life events on average, and this relationship was modulated by age (impact of stressful events on problem gambling decreased with higher age); and social support was protective against problem gambling on average. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the PGSI measures a single construct in older adults; however, the PGSI functions differently in older adults and may not detect less severe levels of problem gambling. Future research should identify or develop the most accurate problem gambling measures for older gamblers. Despite problem gambling severity appearing to decrease with age, efforts are needed to reduce problem gambling risk in older adults that have lower social support and who experience stressful life events.
- ItemOpen AccessAlberta Gambling Research Institute Conference 2018: Current Issues in Gambling Research(2018-04) Binde, Per; Christensen, Darren; Delfabbro, Paul; Dixon, Mike; Euston, David; Gainsbury, Sally; Hodgins, David; Johnson, Mark; Kairouz, Sylvia; Kim, Hyoun S. (Andrew); Leonard, Carrie; Manitowabi, Darrel; McGrath, Daniel; Mishra, Sandeep; Nicoll, Fiona; Parke, Jonathan; Smith, Garry; Stewart, Sherry; Volberg, Rachel; Wahsquonaikezhik, Sheila; Williams, Robert; Yakovenko, IgorThe Alberta Gambling Research Institute's 17th Annual Conference "Current Issues in Gambling Research" took place April 12-14, 2018 @ The Banff Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada. Opening reception the evening of April 12, 2018.
- ItemOpen AccessAlberta Gambling Research Institute Conference 2021: Gambling in Canada: Current Research & Future Directions(Alberta Gambling Research Institute, 2021-04) Baich, Eric; Belanger, Yale; Chamberlain, Erika; Christensen, Darren; Clark, Luke; Currie, Shawn; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Dixon, Darcy; Dixon, Mike; Euston, David; Hilbrecht, Margo; Hodgins, David; Kim, Andrew; Lautischer, Steve; Lee, Bonnie; Leonard, Carrie; Manitowabi, Darrel; Marshall, Murray; McGrath, Daniel; Nicoll, Fiona; Ofori-Dei, Samuel; Papineau, Elisabeth; Scholnick, Barry; Sévigny, Serge; Shead, Will; Simpson, Rob; Stevens, Rhys; Stewart, Sherry; Tabri, Nassim; Turner, Nigel; Wiebe, Jamie; Williams, Robert; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Yakovenko, Igor; Young, Matthew; Aidelbaum, Robert; Allen, Sasha; Baxter, David; Brazeau, Brad; Cowie, Megan; Dorchak, Danika; Dowson, Mackenzie E.; Ethier, Ashley R.; Gooding, Nolan; Gorenko, Julie; HeavyShield, Marley; Kim, Hyoun S. (Andrew); Kruger, Tyler B.; Larche, Chanel J.; Laskowski, Catherine S.; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Leslie, Diandra; Mackey-Simpkin, Sean; Marchica, Loredana; Peel, Marie-Audrey; Piquette, Noëlla; Ritchie, Emma V.; Russell, Gillian; Schluter, Magdalen; Schoen, Anthony; Sharif-Razi, Maryam; Sontag, Roxanne; Stark, Sasha; Trottier, Maegan; Yi, SunghwanThe Alberta Gambling Research Institute's 20th Annual Conference "Gambling in Canada: Current Research & Future Directions" took place April 27-29, 2021 as a live virtual event. A selection of conference presentations and research posters presented at the event have been made available with the permission of the authors.
- ItemOpen AccessAlberta Gambling Research Institute Conference 2023: Contemporary Issues in Gambling Research(Alberta Gambling Research Institute, 2023-04-01) Allami, Yousseff; Bedford, Kate; Hodgins, David; Indige-Spheres Youth Group; Kim, Andrew; Manitowabi, Darrel; McGrath, Dan; Naraine, Michael; Newall, Philip; Nicoll, Fiona; Shaw, Carrie; Stevens, Rhys; Volberg, Rachel; Williams, Robert; Busenius, Andree; Gordon, Ted; Krutz, Jonathan; Lee, Bonnie; Lloyd, Joanne; McLuhan, Arthur; Stark, Sasha; Supan, Savannah; Matheson, Flora; Ford, Madison; Papineau, ElisabethThe Institute’s 2023 Conference "Contemporary Issues in Gambling Research" took place March 30 to April 1, 2023 at The Banff Centre in Banff, Alberta as a hybrid live and virtual event. A selection of conference presentations presented at the event have been made available with the permission of the authors.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Examination of the HEXACO Model of Personality in Alcohol Use Disorder, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Gambling Disorder(2018-09-05) Rash, Christina Lee; McGrath, Daniel S.; Hodgins, David; Lee, KibeomResearch within the field of addictive behaviours has found that personality traits as measured by the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality are predictive of engaging in substance use and gambling at problematic levels. However, the structure of the FFM has been criticized as being incomplete, with recent lexical studies identifying a sixth personality dimension. The aim of the present study was to examine this six-factor (HEXACO) model of personality in relation to disordered engagement in three addictive behaviours: alcohol (AUDs), cannabis (CUDs), and gambling (GDs). Four groups of participants (AUDs, CUDs, GDs, and healthy controls; N = 308) completed the 100-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised. Scores on the six subscales (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were compared across groups. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed lower levels of honesty-humility among AUDs and GDs and higher levels of openness among CUDs relative to control participants. AUDs and GDs also reported lower levels of honesty-humility when compared to CUDs. Results support the utility of the HEXACO model in the field of addictive behaviours and highlight the potential role of honesty-humility in the development and maintenance of substance use disorders and behavioural addictions.
- ItemOpen AccessBehaviour is in the Practice: Examining Excessive Behaviours using a Practice Framework(2016) Mudry, Tanya; Strong, Tom; Hodgins, David; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saah, Rebecca; Hoskins, MarieThe concept of “addictive” or excessive behaviours (EBs) has become an object of discussion, treatment, scientific investigation, and controversy. Much of the current research on EBs has utilized an etiological biomedical disease model for understanding EBs, with little focus on the actual practices of EBs, the relational trajectories sustaining EBs, and everyday lives in which EBs are enacted. In this dissertation I conceptualized EBs using a practice framework to show how EBs are reproduced, relationally grounded, and situated in practice networks in everyday life. A practice framework enabled me zoom in to the particularities of the practice, to understand the complex trajectories within the process – and zoom out to see the larger networks of practices influencing and sustaining the practice. Through this research, I also learned about participants’ co-occurring recovery practices that furnished preferred networks of practices. I analyzed 15 participant interviews using a focused ethnographic approach (Higginbottom, 2013; Knoblauch, 2005) and drew from practice theory (e.g., Kemmis, Edwards-Groves, Wilkinson, & Hardy, 2012; Nicolini, 2013; Schatzki, 2012), discursive research (Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Potter, 1997), positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1991), research in affective embodied practices (Lock, 1993; Wetherell, 2012), and Actor Network Theory (Latour, 2005). Based on this analysis, I depicted how food options, Internet features, game and phone design (“things”) played an integral role in the trajectories of EB practices. I illustrated how ability, availability, and the presence of people (“place”) were practice-contingent. I discerned discourses (superstition, normativity, addiction) that were reported important for enacting, explaining, directing, and resisting EB practices. Finally, I attended to larger networks of component practices, to map out the various other life practices that facilitate, support, sustain, or restrict and block EBs. In addition, I shared the intentional and naturally occurring recovery practices which participants engaged. This study offers contributions to addiction theory and research, and counselling practice.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Causes of Problem Gambling(2012-04) Abbott, Max; Billi, Rosa; Breen, Helen; Glynn, Judith; Kairouz, Sylvia; Piquette, Noëlla; Romild, Ulla; Ross, Don; Slutske, Wendy; Stephenson, Elizabeth; Stewart, Sherry; Turner, Nigel; Volberg, Rachel A.; Williams, Robert; Hodgins, David"The Causes of Problem Gambling" conference took place Thursday, April 12 (Opening Reception), Friday, April 13 & Saturday, April 14, 2012 at The Banff Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada. It was hosted by the Alberta Gambling Research Institute.
- ItemOpen AccessChasing the loss: Factors that predict within- and between-session chasing in gamblers(2017) Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David; Sears, Christopher; Zwiers, Michael; Dixon, Michael; Harrigan, Kevin; Hodgins, DavidOne of the hallmark features of disordered gambling is ‘chasing’, defined as an urge to continue playing within a single gaming session or come back at another time to attempt to recover lost money. To date, limited research has been conducted to delineate specific predictors of increased chasing behaviour in both disordered and social gamblers. The present study attempted to answer two questions: 1) which personality, physiological, and cognitive variables predict increased within- and between- session chasing behaviour in disordered and social gamblers? 2) In what ways do disordered and social gamblers differ with regard to predictors of chasing? 111 participants recruited in the community, divided into social and disordered gamblers, gambled on a realistic slot machine with predetermined outcomes. Variables relating to disordered gambling severity, dissociation, emotional vulnerability, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, substance use, and craving for gambling and other substances were assessed as predictors of between- and within-session chasing. Results support the association of chasing behaviour with dissociation, gambling problem severity, emotional vulnerability, and impulsivity. However, inconsistencies in some results point to difficulties in reliability of operationalizing chasing. The results also put in question the validity of using retrospective self-report to assess chasing. The overall findings support chasing as operating on a continuum of severity with social gamblers chasing in limited amounts and disordered gamblers chasing in greater amounts. In addition, qualitative feedback from participants challenges the utility of in-lab gambling as a proxy of real-world gambling conditions. Implications for research, policy and treatment of disordered gambling are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.
- ItemOpen AccessA Comparison of Online Gamblers, Offline Gamblers, and Mixed Mode Gamblers on Gambling and Substance Use(2022-09) Slack, Braydon; McGrath, Daniel; Ellard, John; Hodgins, David; Smith, JacquelineThe rise in online gambling has led to greater research focus being directed toward the relationship between gambling modality and gambling behaviour. Such attention is warranted, given the significant increase in people turning to online gambling. It is currently known that mixed-mode gamblers (i.e., those who gamble online and offline) demonstrate the highest rate of disordered gambling and gambling frequency. Alcohol use has also been shown to be higher in mixed-mode gamblers, which presents a concern given the effects of alcohol on gambling behaviour. Further, mental health concerns have been shown to differ across gambling modalities. While research has begun to investigate gambling modality, more studies are required to better understand the relationship between gambling modality, substance use, and gambling behaviour. The present study explored the relationship between gambling modality, gambling behaviour, and substance use outcomes in greater depth. Specifically, 303 online, mixed-mode, and offline gamblers were surveyed on patterns of substance use, mental health concerns, and gambling severity, behaviour, and motives. Exploratory analyses were also conducted to investigate the role of COVID-19 in self-reported migration to online gambling. It was found that mixed-mode and online gambling are associated with greater gambling severity, frequency, and substance use. Further, scores on a gambling motives questionnaire were found to differ across gambling modality. Finally, results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic influenced gambling behaviour, such that many participants self-reported migrating to online gambling. Overall, the results of this study suggest that a relationship exists between gambling modality, substance use, and gambling behaviour.
- ItemOpen AccessConceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling: An International Collaboration(Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC), 2013) Abbott, Max; Binde, Per; Hodgins, David; Korn, David; Pereira, Alexius; Volberg, Rachel; Williams, RobertWhile seen by many as a form of leisure and recreation, gambling can have serious repercussions for individuals, families, and society as a whole. The harmful effects of gambling have been studied for decades to attempt to understand individual differences in gambling engagement and the life-course of gambling related problems. In this publication, we present a comprehensive, internationally relevant conceptual framework of “harmful gambling” that moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to population risk, community and societal effects. Interactive factors represented in the framework represent major themes in gambling that range from specific (gambling environment, exposure, types, and resources) to general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological). This framework has been created by international and interdisciplinary experts from a variety of stakeholder perspectives - including researchers, treatment providers, operators, policy makers, and individuals and their families - to facilitate an understanding of harmful gambling. It not only reflects the state of knowledge as it relates to factors influencing harmful gambling, but also acts to guide the development of future research programs and educate policy makers on issues related to harmful gambling. The Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) has facilitated the development of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling and is committed to updating it over time.
- ItemOpen AccessConceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling: An International Collaboration Revised September 2015(Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO), 2015-09) Abbott, Max; Binde, Per; Clark, Luke; Hodgins, David; Korn, David; Pereira, Alexius; Quilty, Lena; Thomas, Anna; Volberg, Rachel; Walker, Douglas; Williams, RobertAlthough it is seen by many as a form of leisure and recreation, gambling can have serious repercussions for individuals, families, and society as a whole. The harmful effects of gambling have been studied for decades in an attempt to understand individual differences in gambling engagement and the life-course of gambling-related problems. In this publication, we present a comprehensive, internationally relevant conceptual framework of “harmful gambling” that moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to population risk, community and societal effects. Interactive factors depicted in the framework represent major themes in gambling that range from specific (gambling environment, exposure, types, and resources) to general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological). The framework has been created by international interdisciplinary experts and stakeholders - including researchers, treatment providers, operators, policy makers, as well as individuals and their families - in order to facilitate an understanding of harmful gambling. It reflects the state of knowledge related to factors influencing harmful gambling; and serves a secondary purpose as a guide for the development of future research programs and education of policy makers on issues related to harmful gambling. Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO) (formerly the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC) located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada) has facilitated the development of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling and will retain responsibility for keeping it up-to-date.
- ItemOpen AccessConceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling: An International Collaboration, Third Edition(Gambling Research Exchange Ontario, 2018-11-22) Abbott, Max; Binde, Per; Clark, Luke; Hodgins, David; Johnson, Mark; Manitowabi, Darrel; Quilty, Lena; Spångberg, Jessika; Volberg, Rachel; Walker, Douglas; Williams, RobertAlthough it is seen by many as a form of leisure and recreation, gambling can have serious repercussions for individuals, families, and society as a whole. The harmful effects of gambling have been studied for decades in an attempt to understand individual differences in gambling engagement and the life-course of gambling-related problems. In this publication, we present a comprehensive, internationally relevant conceptual framework of “harmful gambling” that moves beyond a symptoms-based view of harm and addresses a broad set of factors related to population risk, community, and societal effects. Factors included in the framework represent major topics relating to gambling that range from specific (gambling environment, exposure, types, and resources) to general (cultural, social, psychological, and biological). The framework has been created by international, interdisciplinary experts in order to facilitate an understanding of harmful gambling. It reflects the state of knowledge related to factors influencing harmful gambling, and serves a secondary purpose as a guide for the development of future research programs and to educate policy makers on issues related to harmful gambling. Gambling Research Exchange Ontario (GREO) (formerly the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC) located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada) has facilitated the development of the Conceptual Framework of Harmful Gambling and retains responsibility for keeping it up-to-date.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of Body Image and Eating Disorder Psychopathology: Normative and Pathological Trajectories(2022-07-28) Lacroix, Emilie; von Ranson, Kristin; Hodgins, David; Kopala-Sibley, DanielIntroduction: Body image is a critical area of wellbeing that predicts many important outcomes, including eating pathology. Unfortunately, there is no consensus about what constitutes normative body image development, or how people come to develop negative body image. The objective of this project was to advance understanding of both normative and pathological trajectories of body image and eating pathology development. Method: This dissertation includes a systematic review and meta-analysis (Chapter 2), and two primary longitudinal studies (Chapters 3 and 4). The meta-analysis summarized longitudinal data from 142 samples to characterize normative mean-level change in body image among females and males between ages 6 and 54. The two primary longitudinal studies took a person-centred approach to identify the most common trajectories of body image and eating pathology, and examine their predictors in two samples: a U.S. sample of 760 female twins assessed between ages 11 and 29; and a U.K. sample of 328 girls and 429 boys assessed between ages 11 and 15. Results: The meta-analysis identified gender-moderated patterns of normative body image development: boys showed small fluctuations in overall body image with net-improvements between ages 10 and 24, whereas girls showed worsening body image between ages 10 and 16, but improvements between ages 16 and 24. Mean-level changes were largest between ages 10 and 14, and stabilized by age 24. The two primary studies identified subgroups of boys and girls who deviated considerably from normative patterns of development; pathological subgroups showed greater proneness to stress, anxiety, and negative emotionality, social difficulties, dietary restraint, and lower global self-esteem. Conclusion: These studies advance theories of body image development. First, a critical period may occur slightly earlier than previously believed. Second, girls and boys may both, on average, experience improvements in body image during emerging adulthood. Third, pluripotent transdiagnostic risk factors such as personality characteristics merit increased attention alongside sociocultural variables that specifically increase risk for eating pathology.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of Online Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery on Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors Undergoing Chemotherapy(2022-09) Flynn, Michelle Jacqueline; Campbell, Tavis; Carlson, Linda; Hodgins, David; von Ranson, KristinIntroduction: Cancer survivors commonly report deterioration in cognitive function during and for several years following cancer treatment, adversely affecting their quality of life. Cognitive changes in cancer survivors likely occur due a complex interaction of disease-related, treatment-related, and psychological factors. One promising intervention for alleviating disruptions in cognitive function in cancer survivors is Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR). Methods: A systematic review examined the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on cognitive function in cancer survivors. An observational study included 38 breast and colorectal cancer survivors to investigate predictors of self-reported and objectively-assessed cognitive function before chemotherapy treatment. Finally, an intervention study including 38 breast and colorectal cancer survivors investigated the effects of participating in an online MBCR group during (immediate group) or after (waitlist group) chemotherapy treatment in self-reported and objectively-assessed cognitive function. Results: Results of the systematic review indicated significant effects on self-reported cognitive function, favouring MBIs over inactive controls (e.g., waitlist, usual care) and active controls (e.g., metacognition training, walking groups). Mixed results were reported for objectively-assessed cognitive function. Results of the observational study indicated that mood disturbance was a significant predictor of self-reported cognitive function. Objectively-assessed cognitive function was not significantly correlated with other unwanted side effects. Results of the intervention study indicated an average worsening of self-reported cognitive function from pre- to post-MBCR/post-waiting regardless of group assignment. Small to large within-person and between-group effects were observed across timepoints for objectively-assessed cognitive function. Differences in objectively-assessed cognitive function across time were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Future research is warranted to further investigate the role of MBIs in improving both self-reported and objectively-assessed cognitive function in cancer survivors undergoing treatment. In particular, there is a need for studies adequately powered to detect cognitive changes between groups over time, using a range of cognitive assessment methods, with diverse samples.
- ItemOpen AccessEngaging the Big Questions in Gambling Studies(2011-04) Belanger, Yale D.; Campbell, Colin S.; Chambers, Kerry G. E.; Coates, Dennis; Cosgrave, Jim; Cotte, June; Currie, Cheryl L.; Farrow, Scott; Hancock, Linda; Hodgins, David; Humphreys, Brad R.; Livingstone, Charles; Schopflocher, Donald; Smith, Garry; Volberg, Rachel A.; Williams, Robert; Papineau, Elisabeth; Wohl, MichaelThe "Engaging the Big Questions in Gambling Studies" conference took take place Thursday, April 7 (Opening Reception), Friday, April 8 & Saturday, April 9, 2011 at The Banff Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada. It was hosted by the Alberta Gaming Research Institute.
- ItemOpen AccessExamining the Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships between Emotion Regulation and Addictive Behaviors among Community Women(2017) Farstad, Sarah; von Ranson, Kristin; Hodgins, David; Dobson, KeithThe purpose of this study was to compare deficits in emotion regulation that are associated with binge eating, food addiction, problem gambling, and substance abuse in order to elucidate similarities and differences between eating pathology and both behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling) and substance addictions (i.e., alcohol and drug abuse). Participants were 202 women from the community who engaged in at-risk binge eating (39%), at-risk gambling (18%), or both behaviors (43%). Participants completed online assessments every two months for six months. The baseline and six-month surveys assessed self-reported emotion dysregulation, binge eating, food addiction, gambling, and substance abuse. The abbreviated two- and four-month surveys assessed only binge eating and gambling. Study 1 compared the facets of emotion regulation that were longitudinally associated with binge eating and the only formally-recognized behavioral addiction, gambling. Emotion dysregulation was associated with increased binge eating and problem gambling but positive urgency had the opposite association to eating pathology versus gambling: higher scores on positive urgency were associated with more severe problem gambling yet slower increases in eating-related impairment over time. Study 2 compared the facets of emotion regulation that were cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with food addiction and substance abuse. Negative urgency emerged as a common cross-sectional correlate of food addiction and substance abuse, whereas positive urgency and non-acceptance of one’s negative emotions had different associations to food addiction versus substance abuse. Positive urgency predicted increased odds of endorsing future substance abuse problems and decreased odds of endorsing future food addiction, whereas being unaccepting of one’s negative emotions was associated with more severe food addiction symptoms and less severe alcohol-related problems. Overall, these findings suggest that binge eating and food addiction are not associated with the same key deficits in emotion regulation as existing behavioral and substance addictions.
- ItemOpen AccessFood and Eating Addiction: Severe Forms of Uncontrolled Eating? Examining an Extension of a Continuum Model(2017) Lacroix, Emilie; von Ranson, Kristin; Russell-Mayhew, Michelle; Hodgins, DavidThis study examined the fit of a continuum model of uncontrolled eating as extended to measures of food and eating addiction, and investigated associations of these constructs with clinical impairment. Participants were 544 adults recruited through an online crowdsourcing tool, and 358 students. We tested the fit of structural equation models depicting a continuum of uncontrolled eating, and examined relationships among self-report measures of food and eating addiction, emotional eating, power of food, binge eating, and clinical impairment. Results supported the convergent validity of food and eating addiction measures with measures of theoretically similar forms of eating pathology. Food addiction demonstrated incremental validity in explaining clinical impairment above the general uncontrolled eating factor in both samples, and was equivalently associated with all types of impairment. Eating addiction was more strongly associated with personal (i.e., emotional) impairment, but did not account for variance in impairment beyond the general uncontrolled eating factor.
- ItemOpen AccessIdentifying the Role of Mediators and Moderators on the Relationship between Early Traumatic Experiences and Problematic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Longitudinal Study(2023-05-18) Sharif-Razi, Maryam; Hodgins, David; Madigan, Sheri; McGrath, Daniel; Kopala Sibley, Daniel; Derevensky, JeffreyAbstract Introduction: Despite a robust association between early traumatic experiences (ETEs) and problematic alcohol use, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies that have directly investigated this relationship in adolescents. Furthermore, previous studies have neglected the effect of important mediating and moderating variables. The current project aims to bridge these gaps and expand the literature on the trauma-addiction link using two distinct studies. Methods: Study 1 consisted of a systematic review that investigated the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use using longitudinal studies where temporality was established. Study 2 employed a longitudinal dataset to investigate the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use in adolescents, with a focus on mediating (externalizing behaviours and internalizing behaviours) and moderating (sex) effects. The data was collected over the course of 5-years via questionnaires and in-person interviews and was analyzed using latent growth curve models. Results: In Study 1, six of the nine prospective studies demonstrated a significant positive relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use. In Study 2, the first model showed that higher trauma severity was significantly associated with greater problematic alcohol use severity at baseline. Further, growth in trauma severity was associated with significant growth in problematic alcohol use severity over time. The second model indicated there was a positive relationship between trauma and problematic alcohol use severity at baseline for both males and females, but that this relationship was significantly stronger in females. The final mediation model showed that internalizing and externalizing behaviours mediated the relationship between trauma and problematic alcohol use severity at baseline and over time. Conclusion: The results from these studies advance our understanding of the relationship between ETEs and the development of alcohol use problems later in life. Study 1 lends evidence to the notion that ETEs are a risk factor for problematic alcohol use. Study 2 showed that internalizing and externalizing behaviours mediate the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use, making these behaviours a good target in treatment for trauma-exposed youth.
- ItemOpen AccessLongitudinal Analysis and Modeling of Video Game Play and Addiction Behaviours(2016) Wong, Ulric; Hodgins, David; Sears, Chris; Fung, TakThis longitudinal study examined Internet gaming by measuring number of days played per month of a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG), World of Warcraft (WoW), collected daily for 19 months from 216 participants. This study was an attempt to improve our understanding of long term play of a purportedly addictive game using behavioural rather than self-reports measures alone. Participants also completed online questionnaires that measured demographic, psychosocial and psychiatric variables at three time points during the study. The data was modeled using (a) cross-sectional models and (b) longitudinal models fitted to the entire participant pool and to a subset of higher use participants. The longitudinal growth curve model fitted to the complete pool of participants suggested that monthly WoW days played was related to higher income, more self-reported days playing video games per week, increasing GAIA coping subscale scores, play of a new WoW expansion pack, and higher ranking of WoW among participants‘ favourite games. The longitudinal growth curve model fitted to a subset of participants in the top 75th percentile of total days played suggested that monthly WoW days played was explained by older age, part time student status, expansion pack play, and higher ranking of WoW among participants‘ favourite games. Higher baseline GAIA addiction scores predicted higher monthly WoW days. Unexpectedly, increasing GAIA addiction scores and GAIA coping scores were related to decreasing monthly WoW days played in this subset of participants. Compared to the cross-sectional models, the longitudinal growth curve models allowed for the modeling of autocorrelated observations and play as a series of exposure and adaptation effects, likely in response to new content. The GAIA coping subscale had a robust relationship with WoW play across high and low use participants while the effects of the GAIA addiction full scale were only significant when the bottom 25% of participants by total WoW days played were excluded from the analysis. Results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal models may have implications for assessment and treatment in clinical settings.
- ItemOpen AccessProblem gambling risk factors in internet and non-internet gamblers(2012-09-06) MacKay, Terri-Lynn; Hodgins, DavidThe purpose of this research was to explore differences between online and land-based gamblers to determine whether differences in problem gambling risk factors could account for the higher rates of pathological gambling observed in online gamblers. The primary focus of study 1 was to investigate factors known to be associated with problem gambling severity to determine whether these variables are associated with Internet gambling. An additional focus was to investigate whether online gamblers initiate and maintain their gambling through the Internet or whether they are land-based gamblers seeking a new forum. Three hundred and seventy four undergraduates completed an online questionnaire looking at demographic, cognitive, psychological, dispositional and medium related factors. The results of a logistic regression analysis revealed that online gamblers were less likely to be Caucasian, were more likely to engage in range of gambling activities and have more gambling-related cognitive distortions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of play and distorted gambling cognitions were independent predictors of problem gambling severity among Internet gamblers. The majority of online gamblers also wagered in land-based formats, with less than 3% reporting that their first gambling experience occurred online. The purpose of study 2 was to investigate the role of cognitions to determine whether online gamblers were distorting aspects of play. Two hundred and seventy eight poker players completed 75 hands of Texas Hold’em against an automated computer opponent. The results of study 2 revealed that Internet gamblers perceived themselves to be more skilled and exhibited higher levels of gambling related cognitive distortions when compared to non-Internet gamblers, despite showing no superiority in actual ability. Based on the findings, consideration should be given to the influence of the Internet on heavily involved gamblers. This study has implications for understanding howthe Internet influences gambling behaviour in order to effectively create appropriate prevention and treatment initiatives. This study also has implications for substantiating a psychosocial approach to online gambling to inform public policy decisions in the future.