Browsing by Author "Lock, Jennifer"
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- ItemOpen AccessA study of student persistence in a Canadian university distance master of nursing program(2010) Haggith, Kathleen; Lock, Jennifer
- ItemOpen AccessAcademic Integrity Online: Developing Support Mechanisms for Online Graduate Students to Understand Plagiarism: Research Project Brief(Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, 2017-06-19) Eaton, Sarah E.; Lock, Jennifer; Schroeder, Meadow; Elaine, SarahThe Werklund School of Education (WSE) has identified an opportunity to study the development of online graduate students’ understanding of plagiarism and academic integrity. The proposed project will explore the impact of an evidence-based online tutorials designed specifically for new graduate students. This study will address questions students have about how to correctly cite and reference sources for their papers, capstone projects and theses. The tutorials will focus on a positive and educational approach to cultivating academic integrity as an integral element of the graduate student experience, moving away from outdated and punitive approaches that do little to bolster students’ confidence in themselves and their abilities. Previous studies have shown that developing social, cognitive and teaching presence in online courses helps students success but when institutional tutorials are developed the are often done as a static and stand-alone tutorial that do not include interaction with others. The study involves an A/B testing model in which research participants will have their choice of participating in Option A: an asynchronous (on demand) online tutorial or Option B: a synchronous (real time) interactive tutorial facilitated by an instructor. The study will examine online students’ preferences and progress in terms of developing their understanding of plagiarism and cultivating a personal ethic of academic integrity as graduate students. We aim to discover what the differences are between static on-demand tutorial and a real-time facilitated interactive session with an experienced instructor.
- ItemOpen AccessAdoption of Innovation: Exploring the Design and Implementation of a Cardiovascular Registry Project(2023-03-30) King, Melanie; Lock, Jennifer; Estefan, Andrew; Kawalilak, ColleenAdvanced data technologies are permeating the healthcare environment, yet little is known about the role of learning in these change events. Literature on advances of data science for use in healthcare predominantly focuses on the computational and analytic methods, barriers and benefits, as well as the potential impact on the industry and professional roles. Few studies have explored health professionals’ experiences and perspectives on the integration of data science technologies in practice. In this qualitative, descriptive case study, I explored the experiences of 16 health professionals who had a role in a change event related to a cardiac registry project in western Canada. Study participants included project team members, clinicians, research collaborators, and academic and clinical institution staff and leaders. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the experiences of participants to better understand the conditions that shaped the change event, the learning strategies employed, and the factors that contributed to the successful adoption of innovation. Findings from the study revealed that people play a central role in the success of a change event and project implementation. While three additional themes emerged from the data, namely the environment, learning, and innovation, it was the individuals, teams, and relationships that function within those elements that were critical to the success of the registry project. The results of this work provided insight into the necessary conditions to support successful adoption of advanced data technologies and guided recommendations for future change events.
- ItemOpen AccessAdult Immigrants Seeking Entry into the Trades in Rural Alberta: Navigating the Processes of Credentialing and Re-credentialing(2018-07-05) Ross, Douglas Robert; Jubas, Kaela; Roy, Sylvie; Simmons, Marlon; Sewell, H. Douglas; Sawchuk, Peter H.; Lock, JenniferThe purpose of this case study is to explore a sample of international power engineering students' experiences and perceptions to get a better understanding of the individual and collective strategies adopted to navigate the post-migration transition to the Canadian labour market. Along with document analysis, this thesis analyzes data gained through personal interviews and a focus group with 14 international power engineering students, with the intention of gathering input from their experiences and perceptions of (re-)credentialing to realize successful labour market entry. This thesis offers an analysis of (re-)credentialing as a contested space amidst a process of negotiating an arbitrarily imposed re-training regime. With a sociocultural framework that considers the earlier writings of Lev Vygotsky in support of the contemporary concepts of Pierre Bourdieu, the findings suggest the need for more support of mediated learning experiences to promote abilities to process new and complicated symbolic representations linked to labour market entry requirements. The findings also indicate the profound influence of a field-habitus clash on successful entry to occupations of choice.
- ItemOpen AccessAesthetic Experience in Teacher Education(2022-09-23) Lee, Somi; Kim, Beaumie; Sengupta, Pratim; Lock, Jennifer; Clark, Douglas; Takeuchi, MiwaThis study is about how pre/in-service teachers can engage in aesthetic experience (Dewey, 1934) through conceptual artmaking in outdoor public spaces. The activity in the study is meant to develop expansive approaches to their disciplinary perspectives. My work arose from a pragmatic concern where teacher candidates in Ontario typically specialize in a particular subject area (e.g., mathematics, sciences, visual arts) during their B.Ed degrees, but then licensed to and are often required to teach in other subject areas in the public school system. To this extent, this study has a critical research question: how can conceptual art making in outdoor public places engage pre/in-service teachers in aesthetic experience through connecting and expanding their disciplinary perspectives? The sub-question is: how does collaborating with university students with different majors further affect this process? My argument includes that art as an embodied learning associated with creative action makings, can positively impact pre/in-service teachers on synthesizing their disciplinary understanding and comprehension through art. I introduce two methodologies, Art-Based Research and Design-Based Research. Both are used to design artistic approaches of educational research and generate theoretical claims for impactful learning practices for pre/in-service teachers. I also illustrate how I used constant comparison from grounded theory as a technique to analyze four types of data that are either discursive or non-discursive. The discursive data includes in-depth interviews after each workshop and field notes and the non-discursive data includes video recordings from the workshops and visual sketches in the field notes. The analysis of the data led to the development of four empirically supported theories: (1) place-based learning and meaningful transformation (Powell, 2020; Springgay & Truman, 2022), (2) expanded approaches to disciplinary perspectives, (Abrahamson & Lindgren, 2022; Ma & Hall, 2018), (3) mode of inquiry: art-based approach to teaching and learning, and (4) connecting everyday experience with schooling (Allen, 2016). This study took place during the global pandemic, in which the COVID-19 has affected people's lives immensely by limiting almost all parts of living situations, predominantly mobility, due to health concerns. The participants used the limitations and a varying degree of governance in the public spaces in Toronto as sources of learning and teaching to increase resilience in education. In this sense, I suggest that an emphasis on place-based and embodied learning (Ma & Hall, 2018) and aesthetic experience (Dewey, 1934; Greene, 2001; Grierson, 2017; Schmidt, 2010; Uhrmacher, 2009) can be helpful in designing pedagogical approaches for addressing the gaps in teacher education. Thus, my work can contribute to the growing areas of art-based learning in learning sciences (Sawyer, 2022) as well as the scholarship on expansive pedagogies in art education (Gradle, 2007; Inwood & Kennedy, 2020; Pérez & Libersat, 2016; Powell & Lajevic, 2011).
- ItemOpen AccessAn Integral Analysis of Bahamian Adolescents’ Reflections on Their Future Lives After They Complete High School(2017) Kellock, M. Kathleen; Bohac Clarke, Veronika; Davis, A. Brent; De Pass, Cecille M.; Lock, Jennifer; Maclure, RichardAdolescents who are nearing the end of their experience in high school are faced with many opportunities and challenges, which may direct their future path towards higher education and career development. The future orientation among Bahamian adolescents was looked at from an integral lens, which guided this research. The beliefs and goals Bahamian adolescents had for their future were explored and included present actions and plans students proposed to realize these goals. Further, the expectations adolescents perceived others had for them and the perceptions they held for themselves also guided this research. Finally, outside influences and systems that impact adolescents’ implementation and realization of their goals were identified. The use of integral methodological pluralism, supported by mixed methods research, gathered phenomenological, hermeneutical and empirical data from school and community members involved in a private high school in the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Studies on future orientation with adolescents in other countries provided a comparison for and offered additional insight into the phenomenon of college and career readiness.
- ItemOpen AccessBoundary Crossing and MOOC Design(2017) Bradshaw, Kathlyn; Parchoma, Gale; Lock, JenniferThis case study examined instructional designers’ perceptions of opportunities for formal and informal learning in a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) design. Cultural, historical, and technological influences interact within activity systems in which we teach and learn (Engeström, 2009a). Synthesis, analysis, and reflection upon findings resulted in answers to the central research question of how instructional designers perceive learners’ opportunities for boundary crossing between formal and informal learning within a specific MOOC design. Thus, this research study was conceptualized to inform a deeper understanding of design considerations that may be able to support both formal and informal learning opportunities in MOOCs. The research, a case study using mixed methods procedures, was conducted over three phases: a survey (Phase I), focus group interviews using a semi-structured protocol allowing the research to build on survey results (Phase II), and individual interviews to build on both the results of the survey and focus groups (Phase III). Findings identified key factors that influenced participants’ perceptions of opportunities for formal and informal learning, and boundary crossing within the MOOC design. The findings suggest participants perceived both formal and informal learning as activity systems. Designer-participant perceptions of the potential for boundary crossing between formal and informal activity systems identified tensions and contradictions in relation to the course structure and navigation, learning objectives (as known, unknown and unknowable), and designing for prescriptive and self-directed learning. Participants’ perceptions of opportunities for formal and informal learning, and boundary crossing within the MOOC design were influenced by prior formal instructional design experiences. The study surfaced implications for MOOC design that may support instructional design efforts for future MOOCs. A cultural, historical, and technological approach to design (Engeström, 2009a) may provide a framework to innovate, experiment, prototype, and analyze in order to augment e-learning -- particularly MOOC --success, create synergies between research and design activities, and intentionally factor informal learning integration into contemporary design and development.
- ItemOpen AccessBringing Environmental Identity Research into the Classroom Context(2017) Simms, Wendy; Shanahan, Marie-Claire; Alonso-Yanez, Gabriela; Shapiro, Bonnie; Lock, Jennifer; Varelas, MariaThe problem guiding this doctoral research is that present-day science education does not always promote the action or ‘citizenry’ required to address local and global environmental problems. The question guiding this research, presented across three manuscripts, is how can environmental identity development be fostered in students learning within the classroom context? A theoretical review of the environmental identity literature revealed that multiple interpretations of environmental identity exist, which varied in the significance given to the social context within which identities develop. Social network analysis revealed that Clayton's (2003) interpretation of environmental identity, emphasizing emotional connections to nature and the physical context, has greatly influenced the research. However, this interpretation of environmental identity may be inappropriate for the highly social classroom context. A case study of an in-school sustainability program called Trash to Treasure (T2T) was used to qualitatively explore environmental identity development in students. Participant observations, group interviews, reflective journals, and student artifacts from 35 focus participants were collected. Eight dimensions of student environmental identity development were identified during the T2T program: the opportunity to be an environmental actor with peers, awareness of environmental threat, emotion, personal meaning, social and self-recognition for environmental action, perceived individual agency, and changed behaviour across social contexts. A framework is offered to represent how these dimensions might interact if the desired outcome is fostering a student’s capacity to take environmental action learned at school into other social contexts. The key element appears to be designing activities that provide time and space for reflection on environmental identity actions. A second case study focused more closely on how three students reflected on the T2T experiences. Inquiry reflection, emotional reflection and critical reflection all contributed to environmental identity, however critical self-reflection was notably absent. Five design strategies are offered to support educators: (1) class participation in citizen science to extend the reach of environmental action beyond school, (2) extending inquiry reflection to include problem solving, (3) creating ‘safe learning spaces’ for emotional reflection and identity navigation, (4) extending critical reflection/thinking to include critical self-reflection, and (5) supporting the ‘thickening’ of student environmental identities beyond the classroom.
- ItemOpen AccessDeveloping a Teaching Framework for Online Music Courses(2016) Johnson, Carol; Lock, Jennifer; Donlevy, J. Kent; Welling, JoellePost-secondary music courses are being offered in an online learning format at an exponential rate of increase (Johnson & Hawley, in press). The purpose of this multiple case study was to develop a teaching framework that assists music faculty members in transitioning from traditional face-to-face classroom teaching to teaching in the online environment. The three case studies included: 1) hybrid online courses; 2) a fully online course focused on social constructivist learning and; 3) fully online courses with limited student interaction. Case data was collected from 11 faculty and 4 student interviews, 16 online student surveys, and 2 faculty focus group discussions between November 2014 and November 2015. First Cycle and Second Cycle data coding and analyses (Saldaña, 2013) revealed four essential elements for online music courses: 1) online music pedagogy (e.g., teaching philosophies, authentic music learning, openness to online music learning, institutional support, and learning approaches); 2) course design (e.g., planning, organization, multimedia use, and course design process); 3) assessment (e.g., meaningful opportunities to demonstrate music learning), and 4) communication (e.g., methods for exploring subject content and technology tools). The data collected from Community of Inquiry student surveys (Arbaugh et al., 2008) and student interviews indicated that the incorporation of these components assisted learning. The resulting teaching framework was developed from both literature and findings from the case studies. It incorporates evidenced components (course design, assessment, and communication) with online pedagogy incorporated in its iterative development process. This framework was presented to and subsequently validated by the faculty who participated in the study. The findings and implications of this study contribute relevant evidence about current online music learning and teaching practices. Overall, constructivist and social constructivist learning approaches to course design were found assistive to providing students with interactive learning in the online environment. The implications of this study are that online music faculty require ongoing active participation in sustainable workshops as well as mentoring, and that administrators choosing new online music faculty members should seek those who have both an openness for online teaching and past experience in teaching using innovative technology.
- ItemOpen AccessDigital Literacy Development in Teacher Education: A Case Study(2021-12-14) Fedorko-Bartos, Kristi-Mari; Lock, Jennifer; Friesen, Sharon; Burwell, CatherineWith increasing technological advancement, developing citizens’ digital literacy is more crucial than ever before in supporting Canada’s societal and economic future. Teachers hold a critical role in fostering their students’ digital literacy development. Using case study methodology, the objective of this research was to gain a deeper understanding from the perspectives of an administrator and five instructors on how pre-service teachers understand and develop digital literacy with the central research question of: How is digital literacy developed within a Design-based Thinking course in a teacher education program? The research question was investigated through collecting data on opportunities in one teacher education program for pre-service teachers in developing digital literacy in a Design-based Thinking course. Data were collected using individual interviews, focus group interviews, and document analysis. The collected data were analyzed through thematic analysis and two cycles of coding to identify emergent themes of participants’ understanding and perceptions of digital literacy development within the context of the Design-based Thinking course within the teacher education program. Four key findings emerged from this research study. First, instructors’ openness (or risk-taking) and modeling the usage of digital technologies in courses within the teacher education program encourage pre-service teachers to use digital technologies. Second, opportunities for feedback in support of pre-service teachers’ digital literacy development can be provided through learning tasks and assessments. Third, teacher education programs need to consider establishing program goals focused on developing digital literacy and provide professional development opportunities to support instructors’ in designing and facilitating pre-service teachers’ digital literacy development. Fourth, instructors need to have an understanding of digital literacy to design authentic and embedded learning tasks for pre-service teachers focused on supporting digital literacy development.
- ItemOpen AccessEducator Learning 2.0: Exploring Educators’ Use of Twitter to Support Professional Learning(2014-08-05) Cooper, Tennille; Lock, JenniferThe purpose of the study was to explore the phenomenon of K-12 educators using Twitter to support their informal professional learning. The research used a case study design with both qualitative and quantitative data sources. Data were collected using three procedures: an adapted version of the Constructivist On-Line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) (Taylor & Maor, 2000a, 2000b), semi-structured interviews and online Twitter content. The findings demonstrated that Twitter was used to complement professional learning by accessing and sharing information, as a catalyst for learning beyond Twitter and for collaborative dialogue and discourse. Further, the findings indicated the reason educators used Twitter was to experience professional learning that was personalized and relevant, through access to information and resources while also establishing and developing connections to others. Such learning opportunities occurred through various interactions that built and supported learning networks while allowing educators to participate to varying degrees.
- ItemOpen AccessExamining Educators' Perceptions About Teaching Students Identified with Reading Disabilities(2022-07-22) Funke Robinson, Kirstin; Lock, Jennifer; Brown, Barbara; Chu, Man-Wai; Friesen, Sharon; Specht, JacquelineThe purpose of this study was to explore the influence of secondary sociocultural artifacts on educators’ perceptions about teaching students identified with reading disabilities (RD). This investigation offered an alternative to traditional special education research by considering sociocultural influences, rather than emphasizing innate characteristics within students. A definitive conceptual model that explained how secondary sociocultural artifacts shape educators’ perceptions of teaching students identified with RD was not found in a review of related literature. Therefore, a specific examination of these perceptions of educators as situated within the unique context within which they were employed was sought. Using a descriptive case study design, a detailed account of the themes within sociocultural artifacts and the perceptions of educators across various roles were gathered within one school district. Since RD tends to be identified in late elementary grades, educators with responsibilities for grades 4-7 were included. Data were gathered across three phases using the methods of document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews. Twelve participants completed the questionnaires and six participants completed interviews. Four major findings were identified from this study. First, the contents of the secondary sociocultural artifacts salient to this school district aligned with either a special or an inclusive education model. Second, classroom teachers’ perspectives on reading disabilities aligned with a fixed deficit model overall, rationalized by their personal experiences with artifacts of special education. Third, classroom teachers’ beliefs about their own self-efficacy to teach students identified with RD varied, based on different aspects emphasized in their reflections on teaching students identified with RD. Fourth, those artifacts aligned with special education were perceived as inhibiting classroom teaching of students identified with RD. The findings from this study contributed to a conceptual framework for how secondary sociocultural artifacts shape educators’ perceptions. Given the important influence of educators’ perceptions on their actual practices, this study was critical to understand how to stimulate actions aimed at improving teaching practices for students identified with RD.
- ItemOpen AccessExamining Indigenous Students’ Persistence in a Hybrid Pre-Nursing Transitions Environment(2015-02-03) Snow, Kathy; Lock, JenniferTransitions programs to support non-traditional students have been in existence in Canada since the educational reform movement of the 1970s (Malatest & Associates, 2004). Scholarly research in the success of such programs is frequently presented in terms of institutional directives such as retention and attrition and success is is typically measured by graduation rates. Despite investment in these programs, more than thirty years later there still exists a considerable gap between Indigenous students’ graduation rates and those of their non-Indigenous counterparts, with significant numbers of students dropping out of university programs within the first year (Statistics Canada, 2011). The goal of this exploratory case study was to determine what attributes of the design and structure of a hybrid learning environment encouraged positive persistence decisions. The case was positioned within the first year of an Indigenous Pre-Nursing Transitions (PNT) program in a western Canadian university. Scholarly literature on persistence and community models such as Tinto’s (1975) Student Integration Model and Wenger’s (1998) Community of Practice were evaluated for their applicability to non-traditional students. Data collection took place over one academic year and consisted of interviews with student and faculty participants, as well as observation of online activities within two required biology courses. The results of this case study demonstrated the complexity of community membership for Indigenous students. Further, the results highlighted the importance of a one-to-one relationship with the instructor and student expectations about this relationship. Other factors that contributed to positive persistence decisions were scale of the environment and structure of course content.
- ItemOpen AccessExperiences of a Collaborative Instructional Team in Support of Online Learning(University of Calgary, 2014-05) Lock, Jennifer; Soroski, Trisa; Cassie, Belina; Hickey, Evelyn; Werklund School of EducationThrough the intentional design of a community of practice, a team of instructors engaged in professional conversations and meaningful collaboration to empower themselves as online educators and to promote critical reflection ‘in’ and ‘on’ action. This community of practice helped inform course design, development and implementation, which strengthened the overall online program. In this article, the instructors share their experiences and insights into working as a collaborative team and present three recommendations for collaborating in support of the development and facilitation of an online graduate program.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Study Investigating Pedagogical Value at a Research-Intensive University(2021-07-06) Egizii, Rita; Friesen, Sharon; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Jamniczky, Heather; Lock, Jennifer; Eaton, SarahHigher education institutions are increasingly being challenged with how best to deliver the necessary knowledge and skills required by the contemporary adult learner facing unprecedented global uncertainty and disruption. This exploratory mixed-methods study investigated the perceptions of a purposive sample of university instructors who exhibited innovative approaches to their pedagogical practices. Participants were university instructors teaching in degreed programs within a bounded timeframe (2015-2018) at a U-15 university in western Canada. The primary research question was: What are the differentiating factors in the approaches and philosophies of innovative university instructors that underpin the pedagogical value they deliver? Instrumentation and analysis consisted of a survey and semi-structured interviews. The fourteen findings from this study are: (1) an innovation mindset sets the foundation for teaching effectiveness, (2) innovative teaching methods reinforce collective learning, (3) affinity for and inclusion of innovative thinking is found within a supported community of practice, (4) innovative instructors are changemakers who focus on value creation, (5) intentional architecting supports co-created learning experiences that support value, (6) value can be created through pedagogy, (7) relationship building is a key element of value creation and begins with empathy, (8) facilitation and collaboration is necessary for guiding value creation in the adult learning process, (9) authentic balanced assessment supports the creation of value, (10) embracing student feedback supports the creation of value, (11) collecting value intelligence creates desired reciprocal benefits, (12) effectual means and experience makes a difference, (13) teaching is a qualified profession and a scholarly discipline which needs to evolve, and (14) innovative teaching can be repressed by institutional culture, inequities, restrictions and lack of support. These findings inform: (a) instructional design that supports the creation of pedagogical value; (b) academic enhancement through professional development which contributes to capacity building and (c) policy making related to teaching standards and teaching effectiveness.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the Design of Technology Enabled Learning Experiences in Teacher Education that Translate into Classroom Practice(2017) Brown, Eva; Jacobsen, Michele; Friesen, Sharon; Lock, JenniferThis design-based research is based on three related problems. One, teacher education programs are not providing every pre-service teacher with relevant opportunities to experience learning in technology-rich collaborative learning environments. Two, teacher education programs are not supporting every pre-service teacher in developing as a designer of technology enabled learning experiences, both on campus and in practicum. Three, faculty in teacher education programs are not all adequately prepared to provide their student teachers with the technology enabled learning experiences needed for today and for the future. The research conducted in this study took place in one Canadian province, however the findings address a large-scale problem and speak more broadly than the provincial level, as they are applicable also to the Canadian teacher education landscape and other provinces in Canada. This study provides a deep and detailed analysis of a provincial context that also contributes to a better understanding of the complexities and challenges in teacher education from a Canadian perspective. Participants included teacher candidates, teacher educators, government education consultants, school administration, an educational technology consultant, a cooperating teacher and class observations in a stand-alone ICT course in a teacher education program. Findings were distilled into seven major themes, which were synthesized from an analysis and comparison of multiple forms of data using triangulation and iterative approaches to first and second cycle coding. The major themes were: (i) Stand-alone ICT course versus the infusion model, (ii) Teacher educators need to be role models in teaching and learning with technology, (iii) Experiences in teacher education programs needed for teacher candidates to build self-efficacy, (iv) Teacher educators: profile and self-efficacy, (v) Attitudes towards the role of technology in education can be influenced in teacher education programs, (vi) Practicum experiences are diverse for teacher candidates, and (vii) Institutional planning and support is needed to provide teacher candidates with the experiences needed to become effective teachers. Overall, teacher education programs are called upon to be responsive to the students in their programs if change in education is going to be effective and calling for systemic change supported by all stakeholders involved in teacher education.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the Role of a Learner-Centered Assessment Approach in Developing Undergraduate Business Students’ Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Skills, and Mindset(2022-01) Khan, Sharaz; Koh, Kim; Chu, Man-Wai; Lock, Jennifer; Simmons, Marlon; Kelly, Robert; Li, QingUnlike the traditional teacher/instructor-centered approach, Learner-Centered Assessment (LCA) promotes students’ active learning that occurs according to the needs of the 21st-century society. The process of creating LCA is not a ready-made solution, making it possible to develop a unique, inclusive model that could be implemented with the same success in different education settings. Research has shown that LCA makes student learning more meaningful by being applied through discovery, creative, and inductive approaches. It enables independent work of learners to be more apparent and better represented and focused on individualization and individual gains. Using LCA, students in undergraduate business programs are expected to develop the following entrepreneurial skills: dynamic strategies, research, creativity, and an entrepreneurial mindset (e.g., the ability to recognize an entrepreneurial culture and effectively manage a team). The characteristics of LCA have been recognized to go above the definition and conceptual delimitation of standardized testing and rote learning. Using LCA, a balanced approach to teaching and learning the necessary 21st-century entrepreneurial skills and recognizing the responsibility of being the mediator of the LCA approach can be manifested through innovative instructional strategies involving the use of technology. In my study of the role of LCA in the development of undergraduate students’ entrepreneurship through the redesign of learning tasks in a course, the mixed methods research design guided my data collection using pre- and post-LCA questionnaires, one-on-on interviews, and observations. The data enabled me to answer research questions pertaining to undergraduate business students’ perceptions of the value of LCA on developing their entrepreneurial knowledge, skills, and mindset, as well as their learning experiences of LCA in the course and the affordances and challenges of incorporating the use of technology into LCA.
- ItemOpen AccessFace-to-face and Online Learning Communities and Their Effect on Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning(2013-09-04) Dyjur, Patricia Marie; Lock, JenniferThe purpose of the study was to investigate the role of the face-to-face and online learning community in supporting participants’ approaches to learning in a blended faculty development program in higher education. Theoretical frameworks used to frame the study were the Community of Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000) and deep and surface approaches to learning (Marton & Saljo, 1976a; Entwistle & Waterston, 1988). The research was conducted as a case study using mixed methods procedures. Data were collected through pre- and post-workshop surveys, interviews, observations, and online discussions. The findings from the study suggested that participants demonstrated a deep approach to learning by gaining a considerable amount of learning, by being highly interested or engaged in the learning process, by applying the learning to their own context, through their desire to excel or improve, by making connections, by being reflective, and by having a sense of satisfaction or confidence. Participants showed a surface approach to learning through low participation in some activities, by barely meeting requirements in some learning tasks, and by forgetting some concepts quickly. The face-to-face learning community appeared to facilitate a deep approach to learning by clarifying or reinforcing concepts, generating ideas, promoting feelings of connection between participants, and inspiring people to do their best work. The online learning community appeared to encourage a deep approach to learning in slightly different ways, such as helping to generate ideas, promoting critical thinking, promoting reflection, encouraging equitable participation, and by impacting the face-to-face learning. Social, cognitive, and teaching presences were documented to occur in the face-to-face learning environment, and each of these presences played a role in encouraging a deep approach to learning by workshop participants. One factor potentially related to a surface approach to learning: the theme, discouraged involvement, was associated with social and cognitive presences. All three presences, social, cognitive, and teaching, also occurred in the online learning environment, where they tended to promote a deep approach to learning. Implications of the study are that both the online and face-to-face learning communities played an important role in fostering a deep approach to learning for workshop participants, and that the online and face-to-face learning communities offered unique learning benefits to learners.
- ItemOpen AccessFirst Language as a Resource in Additive Bilingual Education(2018-01-16) Schmidt, Elaine Gail; Naqvi (Zaidi), Rahat; Burwell, Catherine; Lock, JenniferBi-multilingual language and literacy research over the past three decades demonstrates the positive benefits of integrated language learning pedagogic approaches. In the Alberta Kindergarten to grade 12 bilingual program construct, where second language (L2) learning and biliteracy are the goals, pedagogic practice has not capitalized on these findings. Instead, there continues to be a parallel monolingual orientation to instruction, resulting in the complete separation of languages in learning. As programs have expanded, pedagogy for middle-years and secondary level learners who have attained intermediate level competencies in the second language has become a challenge in that learners frequently interact in their first language (L1) instead of the second language. Practitioners have begun to question existing instructional practice, and research is needed to explore next pedagogic approaches suited to adolescent learners at intermediate and advanced L2 levels. Educational researchers have reported that for pedagogic practice to evolve, practitioner participation in research is critical. To that end, a participatory action (PAR) research study was conducted. Classroom teachers explored English-Spanish dual language (DL) processes with middle-years learners, and specifically observed the role of the first language (English) as a resource for intermediate level second language instruction. DL approaches such as integration of learning and bridging of knowledge were investigated. Data was gathered chiefly from the perspective of the bilingual program teachers informed by classroom experiences with students, as well as through researcher observations and student feedback. Results demonstrated ways in which L1 was a resource for cognitive mediation, L2 development, biliteracy growth, and adolescent bilingual identity formation.