Browsing by Author "Madigan, Sheri"
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- ItemOpen AccessAdverse Childhood Experiences and Intimate Partner Violence: A Meta-Analysis(2022-08) Zhu, Jenney; Madigan, Sheri; Dobson, Keith; Wells, Lana; Noel, MelanieBackground: Intimate partner violence (IPV) represents a significant public health concern that impacts individuals globally. Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) represents one risk factor for IPV involvement. However, the results of existing research on the association between ACEs and IPV have demonstrated somewhat mixed results. Given the heterogeneity of existing findings, the overall effect size of the association between ACEs and IPV was examined, to in turn inform policy, knowledge translation, prevention, and intervention efforts. Objectives: The present research sought to meta-analytically examine the association between ACEs and (1) IPV perpetration and (2) IPV victimization. Additionally, moderator analyses were conducted to determine demographic factors and study characteristics that may impact the association between ACEs and IPV involvement Method: Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO in August of 2021. One-hundred and twenty-three records were screened for inclusion. All studies must have included a measure of ACEs (i.e., 8-item, 10-item, or other composite measure) and a measure of IPV victimization or perpetration (e.g., physical, sexual, or psychological abuse). Results: Among the 27 studies and 41 samples included in the present meta-analysis, 65,330 participants were included. Across all included studies, 33.84% of participants identified as male and the mean age was 32.10 years (age range, 14-56.9). The results of the meta-analyses demonstrated that ACEs were positively associated with IPV perpetration [k = 15, r = .172, (95% CI: .119, .223), p < .001], and victimization [k = 26, r = .200, (95% CI: .143, .255) p < .001]. Results of the moderator analysis demonstrated that the association between ACEs and IPV perpetration and victimization was stronger among studies that examined mixed IPV (i.e., more than one type of IPV) compared to physical IPV exclusively. The association between ACEs and IPV victimization was also stronger among studies that included younger participants and among more recently published studies. Conclusions: The present meta-analyses demonstrate a need for trauma-informed and early approaches to IPV screening, prevention, and intervention. Further, significant moderators identified in the present meta-analyses contribute to a stronger understanding of factors that amplify or attenuate risk for IPV among individuals with ACEs exposure. Future research should build upon these results to help inform resiliency factors that may mitigate risk for IPV.
- ItemOpen AccessAdverse childhood experiences and maternal anxiety and depression: a meta-analysis(2021-01-11) Racine, Nicole; Devereaux, Chloe; Cooke, Jessica E; Eirich, Rachel; Zhu, Jenney; Madigan, SheriAbstract Background It has been proposed that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can put women at risk for mental illness in the pregnancy and postpartum periods. While some studies have found strong support for this proposition, others have found weak or no support. This study is a meta-analysis of the association between ACEs and maternal mental health to resolve between-study discrepancies, and to examine potential moderators of associations. Methods Three electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched up to November 2018 by a health sciences librarian. A hand search was conducted in January 2020 and relevant studies were added. Included studies reported on associations between ACEs and maternal depression and/or anxiety in the perinatal period (pregnancy to 1-year postpartum). Pregnancy and postpartum outcomes were examined separately for both depression and anxiety. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted. Moderator analyses were conducted using meta-regression. Study quality was evaluated using a 15-point scale. Results The initial search yielded 4646 non-duplicate records and full text review occurred for 196 articles. A total of 15 studies (N = 7788) were included in the meta-analyses, of which 2 were also described narratively. Publication year ranged from 1998 to 2019. Mothers were approximately 28.93 years of age when they retrospectively reported on their ACEs. All studies had maternal self-report questionnaires for the mental health outcomes. Study quality ranged from 7 to 12. The pooled effect sizes between ACEs and prenatal (N = 12; r = .19; 95% CI= .13, .24) and postpartum (N = 7; r = .23; 95% CI = .06 to .39) depressive symptoms were significant. The pooled effect size between ACEs and prenatal anxiety was also significant (N = 5; r = .14; 95% CI= .07, .21). Moderator analyses indicated that timing of depressive and anxiety symptoms may be important for understanding associations. Conclusions ACEs confer risk to maternal mental health, albeit effect sizes are small to moderate in magnitude. Trauma-informed approaches, as well as increased mental health support during and after pregnancy, may help to offset the relative risk of ACEs on maternal mental health.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociations Between Screen Time and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviour Problems: A Meta-Analysis(2021-08-19) Eirich, Rachel; Madigan, Sheri; Tomfohr, Lianne; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Climie, EmmaBackground: Research on the effects of screen time on child outcomes has increased exponentially in response to the ubiquity of digital media. However, due to mixed findings, significant debate exists as to whether screen time is associated with problematic child outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing problems. It is important to understand the methodological differences that may be contributing to heterogeneity in findings and the possible risks and benefits of screen time to inform parents, clinicians, policy-makers, and future research. Objectives: To 1) meta-analytically determine the association between screen time (i.e., duration of use) and child externalizing and internalizing problems; 2) identify moderators that may contribute to discrepancies in the literature and point to areas for methodological improvement in future research. Method: Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO in June of 2019 and 22,528 non-duplicate articles were identified and screened for inclusion. Quantity of screen time was defined as the duration of time children spend viewing screens (e.g., television, tablets, video games, and/or computers, etc.). Child behaviour problems included externalizing (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity) and/or internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) behavioural symptoms or clinical diagnoses. Results: After screening all abstracts for inclusion, 434 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and a total of 64 studies (with 74 unique samples; 85,225 participants) met all inclusion criteria. Results revealed that screen time was associated with more externalizing problems (k = 72, r = 0.12; 95% CI [0.10, 0.14]). Moderator analyses suggested that effect sizes were larger for males, in older studies, in studies examining aggression (vs. hyperactivity/inattention). Effect sizes were larger when the screen time informant was the child versus the parent. A separate meta-analysis revealed that screen time was also associated with more internalizing problems (k = 26, r = 0.07, 95% CI [0.04, 0.11]) and moderator analyses suggested that effect sizes were larger when the screen time informant was the child (vs. parent). Conclusions: These meta-analyses support small but significant associations between screen time and children’s behaviour problems. Methodological differences across studies were one of the most common contributors to mixed findings in the literature.
- ItemOpen AccessBody Perception and Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Examination of Body Image and Disordered Eating Symptoms(2023-07-24) Magel, Chantelle A.; von Ranson, Kristin; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne; Madigan, SheriIntroduction: Body size perception and attitudes towards the body (e.g., body dissatisfaction) are two distinct but interconnected components of body image. The relationship between body perceptions and disordered eating is poorly understood. The objective of this project was to examine body size perception and elucidate how it changes and relates to disordered eating behaviours and attitudes across development when compared to body dissatisfaction. Method: In three studies, we analyzed data from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS), a population-based, prospective study of 1,359 predominantly (95%) White, reared-together female twins ranging from age 10 to 33, in which participants completed assessments approximately every three to five years. Study 1 examined the psychometric properties of a scale used to measure body size perception (Body Rating Scales (BRS); Chapter 2); Study 2 investigated the developmental trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and BRS body size perception scores across the study period (Chapter 3); and Study 3 compared the degree to which BMI, BRS body size perception scores, and body dissatisfaction impacted disordered eating behaviours and attitudes over time (Chapter 4). Results: In Study 1, the psychometric properties of the BRS support its validity as a measure of body size perception in girls and women. In Study 2, participants generally selected increasingly large perceived actual body sizes and increasingly small ideal body sizes across time and development, resulting in widening discrepancies between actual and ideal body size ratings until approximately age 30. In Study 3, body perception variables (i.e., larger actual body size ratings, smaller ideal body size, and greater actual-ideal discrepancies) predicted subsequent elevated disordered eating behaviours and attitudes across time more strongly than did body dissatisfaction as measured by self-report questionnaire ratings. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the BRS is a psychometrically-sound tool that may be used to evaluate body perception quickly and easily. Further, this research advances understanding of how body perceptions and ideals change across development, and highlights their relationship with subsequent disordered eating.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a consensus statement on the role of the family in the physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviours of children and youth(2020-06-16) Rhodes, Ryan E; Guerrero, Michelle D; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Barbeau, Kheana; Birken, Catherine S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Madigan, Sheri; Mâsse, Louise C; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Perdew, Megan; Stone, Kelly; Shelley, Jacob; Spinks, Nora; Tamminen, Katherine A; Tomasone, Jennifer R; Ward, Helen; Welsh, Frank; Tremblay, Mark SAbstract Background Children and youth who meet the physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviour recommendations in the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines are more likely to have desirable physical and psychosocial health outcomes. Yet, few children and youth actually meet the recommendations. The family is a key source of influence that can affect lifestyle behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used to develop the Consensus Statement on the Role of the Family in the Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Sleep Behaviours of Children and Youth (0–17 years) and present, explain, substantiate, and discuss the final Consensus Statement. Methods The development of the Consensus Statement included the establishment of a multidisciplinary Expert Panel, completion of six reviews (three literature, two scoping, one systematic review of reviews), custom data analyses of Statistics Canada’s Canadian Health Measures Survey, integration of related research identified by Expert Panel members, a stakeholder consultation, establishment of consensus, and the development of a media, public relations, communications and launch plan. Results Evidence from the literature reviews provided substantial support for the importance of family on children’s movement behaviours and highlighted the importance of inclusion of the entire family system as a source of influence and promotion of healthy child and youth movement behaviours. The Expert Panel incorporated the collective evidence from all reviews, the custom analyses, other related research identified, and stakeholder survey feedback, to develop a conceptual model and arrive at the Consensus Statement: Families can support children and youth in achieving healthy physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours by encouraging, facilitating, modelling, setting expectations and engaging in healthy movement behaviours with them. Other sources of influence are important (e.g., child care, school, health care, community, governments) and can support families in this pursuit. Conclusion Family is important for the support and promotion of healthy movement behaviours of children and youth. This Consensus Statement serves as a comprehensive, credible, and current synopsis of related evidence, recommendations, and resources for multiple stakeholders.
- ItemOpen AccessExperiences of Albertan Families with Young Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Descriptive Report(2020-11-30) McDonald, Sheila; Edwards, Sarah; Hetherington, Erin; Racine, Nicole; Mueller, Melissa; McArthur, Brae Anne; Madigan, Sheri; Dewey, Deborah; Letourneau, Nicole; Tough, Suzanne; Geisbrecht, GeraldThis report describes data collected from Albertan families on the COVID-19 Impact Survey implemented in May 2020, which built on a unique collaboration across two longitudinal cohorts in Alberta: The All Our Families study (AOF) and the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). Our objectives were as follows: (1) Describe household infections of COVID-19 in Alberta among families with school-aged children; (2) Describe urban Albertan family experiences of the pandemic within the first 3-4 months of the outbreak across the areas of financial impact, maternal mental health and well-being, school and daily life, and relationships in the home; and (3) Describe associations among key predictor variables (e.g., financial impact) and outcomes (e.g., maternal anxiety, concern for child’s well-being). Study Sample: AOF and APrON Cohort participants reflect families parenting at least one child in between the ages of 8 and 12. While the respondents represent a broad range of income, education and ethnicity, they are typified by adequate income, food and housing security and partnered marital status. Highlighted Results: Physical Impact: At the time of data collection in May, 2020, over 90% of families did not have personal experience with COVID-19, either through personal infection, infection of a child, extended family member or close friend. Vaccine Intentions: Although over 60% of mothers and their children would obtain a COVID-19 vaccine when available, almost 30% are undecided and 8% would not obtain a vaccine. Financial Impact: In 58% of all families, at least one parent experienced job loss, loss of main income source, or reduced employment hours. One in five mothers reported difficulty meeting financial needs for the household, and 5% of families were experiencing food insecurity. Over 40% of respondents reported at least some impact on their ability to meet financial obligations. Mental Health and Wellness Impact: Mothers reported elevated levels of stress (21%), anxiety (25%) and depression (35%). Approximately 26% of mothers reported having limited coping skills. Almost 90% of mothers have undertaken more domestic tasks in the home. Mothers also reported that their children showed increased sadness and behavioural challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound financial and mental health impact on some families. Investment in strategies to alleviate financial stress, provide parenting supports, and alleviate mental health concerns is critical. Suggested Citation: McDonald S, Edwards S, Hetherington E, Racine N, Mueller M, McArthur BA, Madigan S, Dewey D, Geisbrecht G, Letourneau N, Tough S. Experiences of Albertan Families with Young Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Descriptive Report. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary; 2020.
- ItemOpen AccessIdentifying the Role of Mediators and Moderators on the Relationship between Early Traumatic Experiences and Problematic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Longitudinal Study(2023-05-18) Sharif-Razi, Maryam; Hodgins, David; Madigan, Sheri; McGrath, Daniel; Kopala Sibley, Daniel; Derevensky, JeffreyAbstract Introduction: Despite a robust association between early traumatic experiences (ETEs) and problematic alcohol use, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies that have directly investigated this relationship in adolescents. Furthermore, previous studies have neglected the effect of important mediating and moderating variables. The current project aims to bridge these gaps and expand the literature on the trauma-addiction link using two distinct studies. Methods: Study 1 consisted of a systematic review that investigated the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use using longitudinal studies where temporality was established. Study 2 employed a longitudinal dataset to investigate the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use in adolescents, with a focus on mediating (externalizing behaviours and internalizing behaviours) and moderating (sex) effects. The data was collected over the course of 5-years via questionnaires and in-person interviews and was analyzed using latent growth curve models. Results: In Study 1, six of the nine prospective studies demonstrated a significant positive relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use. In Study 2, the first model showed that higher trauma severity was significantly associated with greater problematic alcohol use severity at baseline. Further, growth in trauma severity was associated with significant growth in problematic alcohol use severity over time. The second model indicated there was a positive relationship between trauma and problematic alcohol use severity at baseline for both males and females, but that this relationship was significantly stronger in females. The final mediation model showed that internalizing and externalizing behaviours mediated the relationship between trauma and problematic alcohol use severity at baseline and over time. Conclusion: The results from these studies advance our understanding of the relationship between ETEs and the development of alcohol use problems later in life. Study 1 lends evidence to the notion that ETEs are a risk factor for problematic alcohol use. Study 2 showed that internalizing and externalizing behaviours mediate the relationship between ETEs and problematic alcohol use, making these behaviours a good target in treatment for trauma-exposed youth.
- ItemEmbargoSecondary and Tertiary Prevention for Adolescent Dating Violence: A Systematic Review(2023-07) Camacho Soto, Jeniffer Nicole; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Morris, Carly; Madigan, SheriAdolescent dating violence (ADV) is a pervasive public health issue associated with numerous mental, social, psychological, and physical health consequences. Thus, prevention programs have been implemented to prevent this violence and promote healthy relationships. Although there is a growing body of literature on primary ADV prevention strategies, little is known about secondary and tertiary ADV prevention approaches. Thus, this systematic review, guided by Cochrane Review methodology, summarizes available evidence on secondary and tertiary ADV prevention programs. The search with no date restriction was conducted in 8 databases in November 2022. Studies published in English and/or Spanish were included if they described the development, adaptation, implementation, and/or evaluation of a secondary and/or tertiary preventive intervention for ADV. After screening the title and abstract of 3645 articles, 31 articles were included in this study, which report on 14 secondary and 1 tertiary intervention. The included studies suggest that these secondary interventions are somewhat effective in preventing ADV victimization and perpetration, and that the effects may be strongest for teens with a higher risk of being involved in an abusive relationship. The only included study that reported on a tertiary intervention was a developmental study. Based on the lack of tertiary intervention implemented in our communities, clinical-focused interventions focusing on treating and reducing negative symptoms of ADV are needed.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Impact of Core Self-Evaluations and Team Conflict on Individual Burnout(2017) Smith, Julia; O'Neill, Thomas; Bourdage, Joshua; Madigan, Sheri; Collins, MichaelThis thesis explored the impact of team conflict and core self-evaluations on student burnout in using engineering student teams in a first-year engineering course. Three patterns of conflict emerged at the mid-semester time-point: a task conflict dominant profile, a relationship conflict/process conflict minor profile, and a midrange conflict profile. Supplemental analyses identified four emergent profiles at the end of the semester. A multilevel model including core self-evaluations as a predictor, team conflict profiles as a moderator, and burnout as an outcome found that core self-evaluations significantly predicted disengagement, though not when a number of covariates were taken into account, and that the interaction between core self- evaluations and team conflict profiles was not significant. The findings and implications for the Job Demands-Resources Model are discussed, as are suggestions for future researchers.
- ItemOpen AccessUsing Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming(2015-07-15) Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Madigan, SheriNeurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders—autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.