Browsing by Author "Schwartz, Kelly Dean"
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- ItemOpen AccessAdolescents and their music: an analysis of variables related to adolescents' music listening, involvement, and preferences(1992) Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Fouts, Gregory T.
- ItemOpen AccessAnxiety in Children and Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perceptions of Implementing the Facing Your Fears Program in Hospital and Community Organizations(2019-04-16) Berlanda, Laura; McMorris, Carly A.; Makarenko, Erica; Schwartz, Kelly DeanThe Facing Your Fears (FYF) program is a family-centred intervention designed to teach children and youth with ASD strategies to reduce co-occurring symptoms of anxiety. The present study explored the process of implementing the FYF program through the perceptions of facilitators and managers in either a hospital setting or community organization, in addition to determining the treatment outcomes for participants who completed FYF. Sixteen facilitators and managers were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the compatibility, complexity, relative advantages, barriers, challenges, and adaptations that arose during implementation. Overall, facilitators and managers from both organizations reported that FYF had good compatibility with their organization, implementation of FYF was not too complex, and members of each organization reported advantages that were related to their setting. Facilitators and managers reported barriers and challenges that were organized into four theme-categories: system-level, intervention delivery, logistics, and individual and family. Adaptation themes directly reflected the barriers and challenges that each organization encountered when implementing FYF, as modifications were needed to be made to the intervention as well as the organization structure to overcome the difficulties of implementing an evidence-based intervention into clinical practice. Despite these modifications, both parent and child reported symptoms of anxiety, in addition to social responsiveness changed post intervention. Factors that may have impacted changes in anxiety symptoms, such as increased understanding or awareness of anxiety, are discussed in more detail. These findings provide foundational knowledge to the understanding of the strengths and challenges of implementing FYF in clinical practice across different settings. Additionally, knowledge gained from the current project may be beneficial and useful for future facilitators and managers to consider when preparing to implement and implementing FYF within their organization.
- ItemOpen AccessArt as Cultural Practice: Voices of Kainai Nation Educators on Students’ School Engagement and Wellness following a Community-led Art Workshop(2018-09-14) Van Bavel, Marisa Sylvia; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Fellner, Karlee D.; Murry, Adam; Brandon, JimThis thesis examines the role of an art workshop in releasing Indigenous youth’s creativity and connecting them to school in a culturally appropriate way. My research questions consider how cultural and artistic engagement address student wellness and educational engagement in order to consider how pedagogy and curriculum can be adapted to better serve Blackfoot students. Following research conversations with school personnel, Storywork analysis was used to explore the importance of art-as-therapy, self-representation, art as a voice, traditional examples of art in culture, and contemporary Indigenous art politics. This study found that art connected youth to their culture, their peers and their school. Art was also described as a method for rediscovering voice, empowering students, and developing a positive identity. The findings are intended to support schools’ capacities to respond to Indigenous student wellness and educational needs. Findings will support a larger initiative that seeks to articulate a framework that other Indigenous communities and schools may draw upon.
- ItemOpen AccessBig Questions: The Relation of Cognitive Profile to Sense of Meaning in Life, Self-Compassion, and Subjective Well-Being Among Highly Intelligent Youth(2023-01-03) Boey, Jennifer Madeline; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Makarenko, Erica Marie; Zhao, XuCognitive characteristics may leave highly intelligent youth at higher risk of internalizing symptoms, problems in social functioning, or low subjective well-being. This study utilized archival psychoeducational assessment data to compare verbal-fluid intelligence discrepancy with social-emotional self- and parent-report scores in children and adolescents identified as highly intelligent. Results indicated that social stress is associated with verbal-fluid intelligence discrepancy while internalizing symptoms are not. Neither gender nor age was found to influence these relationships significantly. Questionnaire data were collected from a subsample of participants to compare intelligence with measures of self-compassion and meaningfulness in life. When gender and current difficulties (e.g., emotional symptoms, peer problems) were controlled for, intelligence was found to be associated with self-compassion, search for meaning in life, and discrepancy between search for meaning and presence of meaning in life. Female adolescents responded with a significantly greater discrepancy between search for meaning and presence of meaning than did males. These results suggest that cognitive characteristics are associated with social functioning and meaningfulness in highly intelligent youth and that highly intelligent female adolescents may be at particular risk of experiencing a crisis of meaning. Results may help to inform education practice, psychoeducational assessment procedures, and social-emotional intervention for highly intelligent youth.
- ItemOpen AccessChildren in Canadian Military-Connected Families: Developmental Assets, Parent Mental Health, and Social-Behavioural Outcomes(2018-09-19) Stelnicki, Andrea M.; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Norris, Deborah McGinn; McCrimmon, Adam W.Much of the extant literature on military families is American-based and problem-focused. Very little research has examined the strengths of military families, with emphasis on children from military families. Protective factors, or factors known to prevent the development of behavioural problems, have recently started to gain more attention from researchers. Using a developmental systems lens, this study profiled the developmental assets of children from Canadian military families, examined the relation between developmental assets and youth self-reported problematic behaviour, and determined whether this relation is moderated by the presence of parental mental health symptomology. Thirty-one military families (with at least one child and one parent responding) participated in the study. Slightly more external assets than internal assets were reported for the sample, although each of these fell within the “fair” range, suggesting considerable room for enhancement. Family was the greatest contextual asset reported. Multiple regression analysis revealed that children reporting stronger assets reported less problematic behaviour. Parents’ self-reported PTSD symptoms were used as a moderator to examine whether this relationship remained significant. Although the developmental assets failed to remain a significant predictor of problematic behaviour, inspection of the semi-partial correlations suggests that the numbers of assets account for a large percentage of the variance in problematic behaviour. The current study provides preliminary findings to fill a gap in the knowledge of the personal and contextual assets of military-connected children and the protective role they play in the development of problem behaviour. Implications for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers are discussed.
- ItemEmbargoCoping with Distal and Proximal Stressors: A Transactional Model of Stress Among First-Year Undergraduate Students(2019-10-14) Poole, Julia C.; Dobson, Keith S.; Szeto, Andrew C. H.; Hodgins, David C.; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Harkness, Kate L.The transition to post-secondary education has been cited as a period of high stress, and increased rates of mental health concerns among undergraduate samples suggest that many students are poorly equipped to cope with this transition. The current study utilized the transactional model of stress (Folkman & Lazarus, 1984) to address the need for a comprehensive model of stress and coping among undergraduate students. A sample of first-year undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires within the initial months of their first term (Time 1; n= 788) and again within the final months of their second term (Time 2; n= 621). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the associations among stress and coping variables at the start of the year, including distal stressors, proximal stressors, appraisal of stressors, coping strategies, and emotion regulation strategies, with mental health outcomes at the end of the year, including depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction. Results indicated that stress and coping variables at the start of the year explained almost half (45.3%) of the variability in mental health outcomes at the end of the year. Taken together, the structural model provides a useful framework for the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of stress-related mental health concerns among first-year undergraduate students. Clinical implications and directions for future research and theory development are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessEmotion Regulation in Elementary-Age Children: Exploring the Roles of Mothers and Fathers(2016-01-29) Durber, Chelsea; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Climie, Emma; Benzies, KarenWithin the literature exploring parents’ emotion socialization and meta-emotion philosophy influence on children’s emotion regulation, there is a strong need to assess paternal contributions to children’s emotion regulation. The present study addressed this limitation through its inclusion of both biological mothers and fathers. Correlational and Analysis of Variance methodologies were employed to assess the relationship between mothers’ and fathers’ emotion-related beliefs and practices, how their beliefs and practices relate to children’s emotion regulation, and the impact of parent and child gender, if any, on these interrelations. Although the results revealed minor differences between that mothers’ and fathers’ meta-emotion philosophy and its relation to their emotion socialization practices, they key finding is that mothers and fathers were highly similar across the majority of their emotion-related beliefs and practices. Serving to both substantiate several extant trends and highlight important maternal and paternal differences, this study offers unique contributions to the parenting literature.
- ItemOpen AccessEmpathy and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(2019-08-30) Friesen, Kelsey; Climie, Emma A.; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Wilcox, GabrielleThe current study investigated the relationship between levels of empathy and executive functioning (EF; specifically attention, inhibition, working memory) in children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD often experience impairments in EF. In addition to EF challenges, socioemotional deficits are frequently reported in these children. Successful social interaction relies on a child’s ability to understand the minds of other individuals, a term referred to as social cognition. The present study focused on empathy, one particular component of social cognition. Previous research exploring empathy has identified both an affective and a cognitive factor, which are now considered to be separate components of empathy. Explorations of empathy in children with ADHD have revealed mixed findings, with some studies reporting no differences in the empathy levels of children with and without ADHD. In contrast, a number of other studies have found impaired empathy in individuals with ADHD. The results of recent studies in developmental psychology point to an association between EF and social cognition. The present study included a final sample of 45 children, 20 with ADHD and 25 typically developing (TD), between the ages of 8 and 12 years. The Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory – Parent Report (CEFI-PR) was used to measure attention, inhibition, and working memory, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used to assess cognitive, affective, and total empathy. Overall, the present study demonstrated that children with ADHD have significantly lower levels of self-reported cognitive empathy when compared to TD children. The same pattern was observed in total empathy. No such differences were found in affective empathy scores. The study also confirmed that children with ADHD perform lower than TD children on EF measures of attention, inhibition, and working memory. Finally, the current study demonstrated a significant positive correlation between both total and cognitive empathy and the EFs of attention, inhibitory control, and working memory across all participants.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Examination of the Impacts of Screen Time on Early Childhood Developmental Outcomes and the Role of Parental Engagement(2019-09-11) Mueller, Melissa Barbara; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Boyes, Michael Clifford; Makarenko, EricaSince the television entered our homes in the late 1950’s, scientists have wondered about the impact of television on our development. In addition to watching television, children now have access to and interact with video games, computers, mobile devices, and DVDs that simply did not exist before (common sense media, 2013). Prescriptive research is limited, but current recommendations suggest that children aged three to five should view no more than one hour of screen time per day, and children six to 12 years of age should be limited to two hours of screen time per day (Canadian Paediatric Society, 2017). Although screen time is a pervasive part of a child’s life, reliable estimates on the use of technology, and its impact on various areas of child development are of critical importance. This lends to the research questions of what are the estimated effects of preschool-age screen time on behavioural outcomes and what role do parents play in moderating those effects? The present study examined how screen time is associated with behavioural outcomes in three-year-old children using data from a pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. The results indicate that 85.3% of the children in this study were exceeding the screen time recommendation of 1 hour per day. Screen time predicted hyperactivity/inattention and separation anxiety, but parental engagement did not moderate those relationships. This research informs on the role of a number of factors that can explain the association between screen time and poor behaviour outcomes. Findings from this study benefit educators and parents by affirming their role as important monitors and limiters of screen time while encouraging other enriching activities for child development.
- ItemOpen AccessExamining Adolescent Sexting, Sexual Behaviour, and Mental Health Using Variable-Centered and Person-Centered Analyses(2020-07-21) Mori, Camille Misora; Madigan, Sheri L.; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Boon, Susan D.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.Introduction: Much of the research on adolescent sexting has been dedicated to understanding associated risks, such as mental health problems, substance use, and risky sexual behaviours. However, the literature has yielded inconsistent findings. Moreover, results have largely been based on variable-centered analytical approaches, which do not capture individual differences in sexting behaviours. Objectives: 1) Consolidate results examining sexting and associated risks via a meta-analysis in order to clarify inconsistent findings; 2) Use a person-centered analysis to assess heterogeneous subgroups of youth that display differential engagement in sexting and sexual behaviours. Methods: The current thesis is presented in two parts. Study 1 used a meta-analysis to synthesize results from 23 studies and 41,723 participants (52.1% female; Mage = 14.9). It examined associations between sexting and variables related to sexual behaviour and mental health. Sex, age, publication date, and study quality were examined as moderators. Study 2 used a latent class analysis with data from a sample of 894 youth (55.8% female; Mage = 17.04), from a longitudinal study based in southeast Texas. Classes were identified through participants’ patterns of responses to sexting and sexual behaviour indicator variables. Sex and ethnicity were analyzed as predictors, and depressive symptoms as an outcome, of class membership. Results: Study 1: The meta-analysis found significant associations between sexting and sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, lack of contraception use, delinquent behaviour, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and substance use. Moderator analyses revealed that associations were stronger among younger adolescents. Study 2: The latent class analysis revealed four distinct classes: No sexting-Low sex (42.2%), Sexting-Low sex (4.5%), No sexting-moderately risky sex (28.3%), and Sexting-Moderately risky sex (24.9%). Females and youth identifying as an ethnic minority were less likely to be in groups characterized by higher rates of sexting. Group membership predicted depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Through the use of both variable-centered (meta-analysis) and person-centred analyses (latent class analysis), the current thesis clarifies results pertaining to sexting and correlated risks, and lends nuance to broad correlational findings through the examination of individual differences. Taken together, results can be used to inform initiatives aimed at educating youth, parents, and teachers about adolescent sexting.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring Cyber-Based Dating Aggression during Adolescence using Ecological Momentary Assessment(2019-05-29) Willan, Valerie; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Boon, Susan D.; Drefs, Michelle A.This study examined Cyber-Based Dating Aggression (CBDA) using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). CBDA was defined as intentional harmful behaviour through communication technology within a dating relationship that a romantic partner wants to avoid (Attewell & Fritz, 2010; Corcoran, Guckin, & Prentice, 2015; Piitz & Fritz, 2009). EMA is characterized by repeated measurements of a specific event as participants go about their daily lives (Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007). The final sample included 52 participants, five of whom indicated they experienced CBDA over the three-week data collection period. Three incidents of sexting, two incidents of a privacy breach, and one incident of control were reported. Participants who experienced CBDA reported that it had little to no negative effect on their relationship satisfaction. Written responses related to the behavioural reactions of participants who experienced CBDA were also collected; most responses included some type of positive communication with their partner, with other reactions including substance use or doing nothing. As there are few studies exploring online dating aggression during adolescence, this study contributed to a growing area of research by attempting to employ a real-time data collection strategy (EMA) with a small sample of older adolescents. Given the small sample size, inferential statistical analysis was not possible, and the study is largely descriptive in nature, limiting generalizability to the larger population.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring Preschooler Mobile Media Use and Relationships with Physical Activity, Executive Functioning, and Sleep(2018-09-21) Warren, Karly Dawn; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Makarenko, Erica; Madigan, Sheri L.This study investigated the exposure to and use of screen devices in preschool children (3-5-years-old) and whether mobile media use related to executive functions, physical activity, and sleep. A total of 32 mothers from Southern Alberta completed online questionnaires that measured their child’s media exposure, mobile media use, executive function behaviors (e.g. attention, emotional control), physical activity, and sleep habits. Preschooler’s executive functioning was assessed with A Development Neuropsychological Assessment – Second Edition (NEPSY-II). Results indicated that children are meeting screen time recommendations set by the Canadian Pediatric Society (2017), spending an average of 34 minutes a day on any screen device. Television and mobile devices were the most commonly used. Children who used mobile media daily had significantly better ratings of emotional control compared to children who did not use mobile media daily. Sleep did not significantly moderate the relationship between mobile media use and executive functioning or physical activity outcomes. Interpretations of these findings, along with implications, limitations, and future directions are provided.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the Relationships Among Extracurricular Activities, Cultural Connectedness and School Engagement Among First Nations Youth(2018-10-30) Campbell, Ian Stewart; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; McMorris, Carly A.; Brandon, JimThe current study set out to identify the relationships among school engagement, structured extracurricular activities, and cultural connectedness within a sample of Indigenous youth. Eighteen First Nations youth living in Stoney Nakoda Nation completed a demographics question questionnaire (i.e., extracurricular activities, age of participant, and who the child resides with), a school engagement measure (including behavioural, emotional, and cognitive engagement), and a cultural connectedness scale. Although no significant results were found, First Nations youth are participating in structured extracurricular activities in the form of in-school sports and out of school sports. Emotional engagement and school engagement total were moderately correlated to extracurricular activity participation. Cultural connectedness was not significantly related to extracurricular activity participation or school engagement. Furthermore, cultural connectedness did not significantly moderate the relationship between school engagement and extracurricular activities across any of its levels. Interpretations of these findings, as well as limitations and implications are provided. Keywords: Extracurricular activities, school engagement, emotional engagement, behavioural engagement, cognitive engagement, cultural connectedness, First Nations.
- ItemOpen AccessFriendship Qualities and Their Associations with Social, Emotional, and Behavioural Functioning in Military-Connected Youth(2018-09-21) Wheeler, Bailey Kathleen; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; McCrimmon, Adam W.; Adorjan, Michael C.The present study examined the best friendships and the social, emotional, and behavioural functioning of youth from Canadian military families. Further, it examined how the positive and negative qualities of these friendships were related to the behavioural and mental health outcomes measured. Online surveys were administered to 31 military-connected youth to assess internalizing, externalizing, overall problems, and the characteristics and qualities of their best friendships. The results revealed that the average scores for all outcomes were comparable to civilian peers. However, a large minority of participants had elevated internalizing scores. Further, it was found that the best friendships of these military-connected youth were characterized by more positive qualities than negative qualities. Finally, both positive and negative friendship qualities predicted externalizing scores, but they did not predict internalizing scores. Interpretations, implications and limitation of these findings are presented, as are suggestions for future research.
- ItemOpen AccessNeurobiological Correlates of Anxiety and Comorbid Social Phobia in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Clinical Trial(2018-10-03) Worth, Madelyn Reid; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; MacMaster, Frank P.; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; McMorris, Carly A.; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; MacMaster, Frank P.This study examined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for adolescents with major depressive disorder. The study was exploratory, considering the potential influence of comorbid anxiety on treatment response and neurobiological correlates. Adolescents underwent a three-week rTMS clinical trial. Depression and anxiety symptoms were compared pre- and post-treatment to determine treatment response. As well fMRI scans were reviewed, identifying functional connectivity differences based upon comorbid anxiety. Findings indicated a significant relation between depressive symptom response and comorbid social phobia symptoms such that participants without social phobia symptoms were more likely to show a significant reduction in depressive symptoms. Neurobiological differences in terms of functional connectivity were found, based upon anxiety severity, comorbid social phobia symptoms, and anxiety symptom treatment response. These findings indicate that the presence of comorbid anxiety is associated with neurobiological differences that may in turn influence rTMS treatment response. Discussions of these findings are included in this document.
- ItemOpen AccessProtocol for a rapid scoping review to examine child health and well-being indicator frameworks in OECD countries(2022-09-26) Roth, Christiane; Zwicker, Jennifer; Hagel, Brent; Boynton, Heather; Crowshoe, Lynden F.J.; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Exner-Cortens, Deneira; Metcalfe, Amy; Russell-Meyhew, Shelly; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Thomas, Karen; Tough, SuzanneThe purpose of the rapid scoping review is to identify commonly recognized domains/dimension and indicators considered important to the measurement of child health and wellbeing of children and youth to inform the development of a wellbeing indicator framework. Understandings of the concept and importance of health and wellbeing has evolved in the recent decades to encompass wider determinants of health. The concept of wellbeing or quality of life in particular, has become increasingly relevant at the international and national policy levels as a measure for a country’s overall performance. Wellbeing or quality of life indicator frameworks can help monitor health and wellbeing over time in a given jurisdiction and guide the development of cross–sectoral wellbeing policies and strategies to improve overall wellbeing outcomes of the population. This protocol describes our approach to a scoping review, which will gather comprehensive data on how child health and wellbeing is defined and measured across the globe. The protocol is based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist, which will also guide its reporting. The scoping review will include peer-reviewed articles and information from a grey literature search of inter-governmental organizations and official documents of OECD countries. Data will be synthesized to showcase what child health and wellbeing is commonly comprised of (dimensions/domains/components) and which indicators and sources are used to measure the concept.
- ItemOpen AccessRetired Spouses of Public Safety Personnel in a Psychologist-Facilitated Support Group: Trends of Individual and Group Change(2020-07-22) Baek, Cheong-Min; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; McMorris, Carly A.; Makarenko, EricaThe current study investigated the effectiveness of the facilitated support group provided to spouses of retired Veterans, firefighters, and correctional officer who are affected by Occupational Stress Transmission provided by WGM Psychological Services in Calgary for 12 months. A total of six participants provided consent to this study, and their Outcome Questionnaire and Group Questionnaire data were collected to examine the symptoms experienced and therapeutic relationships experienced by participants during the therapy. Specifically, the Outcome Questionnaire measured participants’ symptom distress (i.e., discomfort, depression, and anxiety levels), interpersonal relations (i.e., loneliness, conflict with others, and marriage and family difficulties), and social role (i.e., difficulties across different settings); and the Group Questionnaire measured positive bonding relationship, positive working relationship, and negative relationships to evaluate therapeutic relationships between member to leader, member to member, and member to group. The current study investigated if individuals showed change in symptoms, if all participants showed reduction in symptom as a group, if individuals showed improved therapeutic relationships during the therapy, and if therapeutic relationships impacted the successfulness of the professionally facilitated support group. The current study could not utilize a statistical analysis; therefore, the scores were analyzed by trend analysis (i.e., visual analysis of graphs), and utilizing score sorting system and pre-existing sample scores to identify any change to severity of symptoms. The results indicated that five participants experienced reduction in symptoms, therapeutic relationships were stable throughout the therapy, and the variables of therapeutic relationship was found to have no measurable impact on symptom change. The current study had limitations due to the format of the data, more depth interpretation and discussion of the findings, along with implications and future directions are provided in the study.
- ItemOpen AccessStrengthening Family Climate and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality Through the Teen Positive Parenting Program(2016) Smygwaty, Serena; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Andrews, Jac; Cairns, SharonThis study examined the baseline characteristics of five parents who accessed the Level Four Group Teen Triple-P Positive Parenting Program (LFG Teen PPP) within Alberta, Canada, as well as pre-post changes in two parents and one parent-adolescent dyad following program completion. The LFG Teen PPP is an eight-session behavioural parent-training program designed to reduce adolescent social-emotional and behavioural problems (SEBs), parent-adolescent conflict, inter-parental conflict over child rearing, and parental maladjustment and to improve familial and parent-adolescent relationship quality through teaching positive parenting practices. Measures of demographics, adolescent SEBs, dysfunctional parenting practices, parent-adolescent conflict, inter-parental conflict over child rearing, parental mental health, family climate, and parent-adolescent relationship quality were completed by parents and adolescents immediately after the first (T1) and last (T2) sessions and one-month after the last (T3) session. Results indicated that parents were similar to one another with regards to baseline demographics, severity of adolescent SEBs, degree of inter-parental conflict over child rearing, and family climate, and were aligned with international samples with respect to baseline demographics, use of dysfunctional parenting practices, and degree of parent-adolescent conflict. Results indicated statistically and clinically significant changes in most parent and adolescent-reported outcomes. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessThe contributions of mother, father, and friend in attachment and social provisions to adolescent psychosocial development(2002) Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Fouts, Gregory T.Adolescents' relationships with their parents and peers have long been acknowledged as important contributors to their psychosocial development. The purposes of this investigation were to (a) explore the nature of adolescents' relationships with their mothers, fathers, and most important same-sex friends, (b) assess the relative contributions of these three relationship systems on the psychosocial development of adolescents, and (c) determine whether there are underlying constructs cutting across the different kinds of relationships that predict adolescent psychosocial development. Of particular interest were the separate and unique contributions of attachment style (e.g., secure, preoccupied) with mother, father, and same-sex best friend and the social provisions (e.g., intimacy, conflict) provided by these relationships to psychosocial development. Participants were 232 mid-adolescents (102 males, 130 females; M= 15.1 years) from four Catholic junior and senior high schools in Calgary, Alberta. Participants completed a web-based questionnaire during class that assessed attachment style with their mother, father, and most important same-sex friend (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and the social provisions (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985) within each relationship. They then completed a series of measures related to psychosocial development, i.e., Emotional Autonomy Scale (Steinberg & Silverberg, 1986), Psychosocial Maturity Inventory (Greenberger & Sorenson, 1974), Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (Markstrom, Sabino, Turner, & Berman, 1997), and Dellas Identity Status Inventory - Religious Beliefs (Dellas & J emigan, 1987). Adolescents viewed their relationships with mother, father and friend as both independent and interdependent. Secure and insecure attachment relationships were consistent across the three relationship dyads, while social provisions were more differentiated across relationships. Different attachment styles and social provisions were associated with different aspects of psychosocial development. For example, having insecure attachments with and negative interaction provisions from parents and friends were positively associated with emotional autonomy and ego strength; whereas having secure attachment styles with and positive support provisions from parents and friends were positively associated with psychosocial maturity and religious identity. This pattern of findings occurred using either separate measures of attachment styles and social provisions or underlying constructs derived from factor analysis. The relative contributions of mothers, fathers and friends to psychosocial development were discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessTransdiagnostic Associations Between Motor and Language Abilities in Children with Developmental Disabilities(2020-09-14) Vashi, Nisha Bhupendra; Curtin, Suzanne; McMorris, Carly A.; Pexman, Penny M.; Schwartz, Kelly DeanTheoretical perspectives and empirical evidence provide support for the relationship between motor and language abilities in typically and atypically developing children. Few studies have explored whether these associations persist across diagnosis, and whether there are profiles based on subtypes of motor and language abilities. The present study had the following aims: 1) is there an association between motor and language abilities across diagnosis; 2) are there associations between fine motor, gross motor, receptive language, and expressive language abilities across diagnosis; and 3) based on these associations between fine motor, gross motor, receptive language and expressive language, are there profiles of scores related to these abilities? Children with various developmental disabilities (e.g. autism spectrum disorder, language delay, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, global developmental delay) were recruited at Renfrew Educational Services. Transdisciplinary teams administered the Carolina Curriculum for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Special Needs, Second & Third Edition over a two-week period. Associations were demonstrated between overall motor and overall language abilities across diagnosis. Fine motor abilities were associated with and predicted receptive and expressive language. Gross motor abilities were associated with and predicted expressive language, but not receptive language. Four clusters of scores related to the subtypes of motor and language abilities emerged. Adopting a transdiagnostic approach provides a more realistic and comprehensive understanding of programming and intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Future studies are needed to ascertain whether these transdiagnostic associations persist over time.