Browsing by Author "Scott, Richard E."
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- ItemOpen AccessA healthcare workers’ mHealth adoption instrument for the developing world(2022-10-02) Addotey-Delove, Michael; Scott, Richard E.; Mars, MauriceAbstract Introduction Healthcare workers’ adoption of mHealth is critical to the success or failure of clinician based mHealth services in the developing world. mHealth adoption is affected or promoted by certain factors, some of which are peculiar to the developing world. Identifying these factors and evaluating them will help develop a valid and reliable measuring instrument for more successful prediction of mHealth adoption in the future. The aim of this study was to design and develop such an instrument. Method A Healthcare workers’ mHealth Adoption Questionnaire (HmAQ) was developed based on five constructs identified through a prior literature review: multi-sectorial engagement and ownership; staffing and technical support; reliable infrastructure; usefulness and stewardship; and intention to adopt. After testing face and content validity, the questionnaire was administered to 104 nurses and midwives in the Ewutu-Senya district of the Central Region of Ghana who used a maternal mHealth intervention. After data collection confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were applied and the Healthcare Worker mHealth Adoption Impact Model (HmAIM) developed. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed the eigenvalue of all five components to be significant (cumulative total greater than 1.0). Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity was significant, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.777, and the mean Cronbach’s α value was 0.82 (range 0.81–0.83). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that constructs for the HmAQ were within acceptable limits and valid. Structural equation modelling showed the causal relationships between components. This resulted in development of the HmAIM. A modified model was then developed using the averages of individual construct items. This model showed strong correlation among the constructs. Further research will be required to understand new dimensions of mHealth adoption as a result of emerging technology needs, new complexities in the healthcare work environment, and how different cadres of healthcare workers respond to it. Conclusion The study presents a valid and reliable instrument, the HmAIM, to serve as a tool for assessment of healthcare workers’ mHealth adoption in the developing world. Use of the instrument will enhance the likelihood of successful adoption of mHealth implementations.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess and Authorisation in a Glocal e-Health Policy Context: Session II: Access Control to Information and Authorisation Management.(Health Telematics Unit, University of Calgary, 2003-05-31) Scott, Richard E.; Jennett, Penny A.; Yeo, Maryann
- ItemOpen AccessDeveloping and validating 'e-health readiness assessment tools' for public and private healthcare institutions in Pakistan(2006) Khoja, Shariq R.; Scott, Richard E.; Casebeer, AnnBackground: e-Readiness refers to the preparedness of a community or an institution to implement successfully any program that involves information and communications technology (ICT). Assessment of e-readiness can facilitate the process of change for individuals and organizations to adopt ICT, and avoid chances of relapse and failure. Various e-readiness assessment tools have been developed and tested in different fields, but very few have been created for healthcare environments. Those tools created for healthcare have only focused on the issues in developed countries. This study was designed to develop e-health? readiness assessment tools for healthcare environments (hereafter referred as e-health readiness) in developing countries. Objectives: To develop instruments to measure “e-health readiness” of healthcare institutions in developing countries, and to test their validity and reliability in Pakistan. Methods: The investigator used a mixed methods approach by applying a sequential exploratory design to develop and validate e-health readiness assessment tools. Tools were developed using participatory action research to capture partners’ opinions, reviewing existing tools, and focusing on the determinants of access to e-health. A qualitative method, borrowed from the tradition of case-study, was used to test the face and content validity of the tools in four institutions. Internal consistency reliability was ? Use of ICTs in the health care environment is referred to as telemedicine, telehealth, or e-health. These terms are not strictly interchangeable, but ‘e-health’ has been selected as the term used in this document. tested by asking healthcare providers and managers to complete the tools. Results were integrated for interpretation. Results: Separate tools were developed to obtain the perspectives of managers and of healthcare providers for e-health readiness within their organizations. Participants endorsed the face and content validity of the tools during the in-depth interviews. The ehealth readiness assessment tools were then modified based on responses from the participants. The final tools were tested for reliability in fourteen institutions across two provinces. A Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.91 was found for the healthcare providers’ tool, whereas a score of 0.94 was found for the managers’ tool. Results obtained from different methods showed good relationship. Conclusion: e-Health readiness assessment tools for healthcare providers and managers have been developed and demonstrated to be valid and reliable in the healthcare institutions in Pakistan. These tools are ready for further testing in healthcare institutions in other developing countries.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a conceptual framework for linking mHealth applications to eRecord systems in Botswana(2021-10-15) Ndlovu, Kagiso; Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E.Abstract Background The proliferation of mHealth solutions and eRecord systems is inevitable in developing countries, and ensuring their bi-directional interoperability is essential. Interoperability has been described as the ability for two or more systems or components to exchange information and use the information that has been exchanged. Given the importance of linking mHealth solutions to eRecord systems in the developing world, a suitable interoperability framework is required to provide an agreed approach to interoperability and specify common elements. Although eHealth interoperability frameworks exist in the literature, none meet all the requirements for linking mHealth solutions to eRecord systems in developing countries. The aim of this paper was to describe the design and development of a conceptual framework for linking mHealth solutions to eRecord systems in Botswana, as an exemplar. Methods An iterative and reflective process was adopted, supported by existing literature and research including consultations with eHealth experts, and guidance from existing frameworks. These collectively identified key elements, concepts, and standards relevant and essential for framework design and development. Results The mHealth-eRecord Interoperability Framework (mHeRIF) was developed which highlights the need for: governance and regulation of mHealth and eRecord systems, a national health information exchange, and which interoperability levels to achieve. Each of these are supported by integral themes and concepts. It also addresses the need for regular review, accreditation, and alignment of framework concepts and themes with a National eHealth Strategy Interoperability Development Process. To demonstrate the framework’s applicability, a proposed architecture for the Kgonafalo mobile telemedicine programme is presented. Conclusion Interoperable mHealth solutions and eRecords systems have the potential to strengthen health systems. This paper reports the design and development of an evidence-based mHeRIF to align with, build upon, and expand National eHealth Strategies by guiding the linking of mHealth solutions to eRecord systems in Botswana and other developing countries facing similar circumstances.
- ItemOpen AccessFormulation of a National e-Health Strategy Development Framework for Pakistan(2013-01-11) Ali, Sajid; Scott, Richard E.Health systems across developing and developed countries face constant and difficult challenges in coping with an ever increasing demand for health care. At the same time, the world has witnessed an ever increasing influence of (ICT) in health care delivery. This has become known as ‘e-health’ and is broadly composed of four domains such as telehealth, health informatics, e-Learning and e-Commerce. e-Health in spite of its usefulness in isolated settings across the globe, still lacks sustainable integration into existing health systems for lack of ‘thoughtful strategy’. This thesis establishes an e-Health Strategy Development Framework (e-HSDF). The methodology includes literature review to identify tools for conceptual framework along with synthesis of evidence to formulate the complete the e-HSDF. Pakistan was used as an example for hypothetical application of the e-HSDF. The completion of the framework contributes to the field of e-health implementation by providing a structured, systematic and evidence-based tool.
- ItemOpen AccessHow Ready are the Stakeholders in the Palestinian Health Care System in the Gaza Strip to Adopt e-Health?(2008) Baroud, Radwan Mahmoud; Scott, Richard E.; Noseworthy, Thomas
- ItemOpen AccessInformed consent practice for videoconsultations in the Canadian health care system: toward recommendations using theoretical, legal, and practical perspectives(2007) Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E.
- ItemOpen AccessInteroperability opportunities and challenges in linking mhealth applications and eRecord systems: Botswana as an exemplar(2021-08-21) Ndlovu, Kagiso; Scott, Richard E.; Mars, MauriceAbstract Background Significant investments have been made towards the implementation of mHealth applications and eRecord systems globally. However, fragmentation of these technologies remains a big challenge, often unresolved in developing countries. In particular, evidence shows little consideration for linking mHealth applications and eRecord systems. Botswana is a typical developing country in sub-Saharan Africa that has explored mHealth applications, but the solutions are not interoperable with existing eRecord systems. This paper describes Botswana’s eRecord systems interoperability landscape and provides guidance for linking mHealth applications to eRecord systems, both for Botswana and for developing countries using Botswana as an exemplar. Methods A survey and interviews of health ICT workers and a review of the Botswana National eHealth Strategy were completed. Perceived interoperability benefits, opportunities and challenges were charted and analysed, and future guidance derived. Results Survey and interview responses showed the need for interoperable mHealth applications and eRecord systems within the health sector of Botswana and within the context of the National eHealth Strategy. However, the current Strategy does not address linking mHealth applications to eRecord systems. Across Botswana’s health sectors, global interoperability standards and Application Programming Interfaces are widely used, with some level of interoperability within, but not between, public and private facilities. Further, a mix of open source and commercial eRecord systems utilising relational database systems and similar data formats are supported. Challenges for linking mHealth applications and eRecord systems in Botswana were identified and categorised into themes which led to development of guidance to enhance the National eHealth Strategy. Conclusion Interoperability between mHealth applications and eRecord systems is needed and is feasible. Opportunities and challenges for linking mHealth applications to eRecord systems were identified, and future guidance stemming from this insight presented. Findings will aid Botswana, and other developing countries, in resolving the pervasive disconnect between mHealth applications and eRecord systems.
- ItemOpen AccessReadiness to use e-health in Africa: design, validation, and application of a country e-health readiness assessment tool(2008) Chowdhury, Md. Faruq Uddin; Scott, Richard E.The fundamental right of every human being to attain a level of health that would allow them to lead socially and economically productive lives is seriously affected by the absence of equitable access to health care. The quest for an e-solution to the issue is gaining in importance, especilly after WHO's recent call to its Member Countries to adopt e-Health into their health care systems. A need has been identified for a practical tool that could be applied at the 'national' or, 'country level' in order to assess the degree of e-Health readiness for adoption of e-Health, but there is no such tool. The current study develops, validates and applies an evidence-based and practical 'Country e-Health Readiness Assessment Tool' (CeRAT). Focus is given to African countries as these are facing complex economical and medical realities. The snidy also formulates recommendations based on CeRA T's assessment of these African countries.
- ItemOpen AccessScoping the literature for synthetic biology's envisioned products: identifying potential impacts on the lives of Albertans(2012) Johnston, Amy; Wolbring, Gregor; Scott, Richard E.