Browsing by Author "Yong, Voon Wee E."
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- ItemOpen AccessAltering the Lesion Microenvironment to Promote Remyelination in Aging Mice(2018-10-22) Rawji, Khalil Sherali; Yong, Voon Wee E.; Midha, Rajiv; Nguyen, Minh DangRemyelination is diminished with aging, posing a significant challenge to therapy in white matter diseases. This decrease in remyelination is due to an impairment in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation and is associated with a dysregulated innate immune response. Macrophages/microglia are components of this innate immunity and are essential to remyelination, as these cells release growth factors and clear inhibitory molecules such as myelin debris. Prior studies have shown that aging lesions have less recruitment of macrophages/microglia and less phagocytosis of myelin debris. It is unknown, however, if the dynamic properties of aging macrophages/microglia are altered within the lesion and whether other inhibitors of remyelination such as the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans accumulate with aging. In this thesis, we sought to address these questions as well as describe two novel therapeutic strategies to rejuvenate remyelination in the aging central nervous system. We used the lysolecithin model of demyelination in young (2 – 3 months) and aging (9 – 12 months) mice and employed a novel ex vivo spectral multiphoton live imaging technique to examine the dynamic properties of macrophages/microglia. We found that aging macrophages/microglia have impaired process extension and are significantly less motile within the lesion microenvironment. Furthermore, we observed that lesions from aging mice display a significant accumulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and a decrease in the expression of several proteases. Finally, we have identified two different therapeutic strategies to enhance remyelination in the aging CNS. We have developed a novel inhibitor of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, peracetylated-4,4-difluoro-N-acetylglucosamine, and have found that the administration of this compound to aging mice enhances the recruitment of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells within the lesion. Second, we have discovered from a drug screen of 1040 compounds a clinically-approved medication, niacin, that significantly enhances macrophage/microglia cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, and chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment of aging mice with niacin significantly promotes macrophage/microglia phagocytosis of myelin debris and increased remyelination. The results within this thesis reveal a novel deficiency of macrophage/microglia dynamics within demyelinated lesions, describes a previously undescribed accumulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, as well as identifies two innovative therapeutic strategies to rejuvenate remyelination in the aging CNS.
- ItemOpen AccessExpanding the Potential Therapeutic Options for Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Use in Multiple Sclerosis(Frontiers Media, 2018-06-19) Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Metz, Luanne M.; Smith, Eric Edward; Dunn, Jeffrey F.; Yong, Voon Wee E.
- ItemOpen AccessIn Vivo MR Imaging of Tumor-Associated Macrophages: The Next Frontier in Cancer Imaging(SAGE Publications, 2018-03-22) Yang, Runze; Sarkar, Susobhan; Yong, Voon Wee E.; Dunn, Jeff F.There is a complex interaction between cancer and the immune system. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can be subverted by the cancer to adopt a pro-tumor phenotype to aid tumor growth. These anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor TAMs have been shown to contribute to a worsened outcome in several different types of cancer. Various strategies aimed at combating the pro-tumor TAMs have been developed. Several therapies, such as oncolytic viral therapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound, have been shown to stimulate TAMs and suppress tumor growth. Targeting TAMs is a promising way to combat cancer, but sensitive imaging methods that are capable of detecting these therapeutic responses are needed. A promising idea is to use imaging contrast agents to label TAMs to determine their relative number and location within, and around the tumor. This can provide information about the efficacy of TAM depletion therapies, as well as macrophage-stimulating therapies. In this review, we describe various in vivo MRI methods capable of tracking TAMs, and conclude with a short section on tracking TAMs in patients.