Browsing Graduate Capstones by Department "Sustainable Energy Development"
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- ItemEmbargo2011-2012 University Of Calgary Scope 3 Ghg Inventory(2013) Lee, DavidThis research project conducts a Scope 3 GHG Inventory for the University of Calgary for the operating year 2011-12 using the World Resources Institute (WRI) Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Value Chain (Scope 3) Accounting and Reporting Standard in order to identify the Scope 3 GHG footprint from university operations. Emissions from Scope 3 sources are important because they can make up to 75 percent of the total GHG footprint for an organization. Scope 3 is a relatively emerging category of emissions, and currently there is only a small amount of literature and guidance available. The previous inventory conducted in 2008-09 relied heavily on the Clean-Air Cool-Planet carbon calculator and generic calculation tools; however, this year’s inventory attempted to use emissions factors and data that provided a more accurate representation of the operating environment for the University of Calgary. This inventory shows a 45 percent increase from the last inventory with the largest source of emissions coming from student and staff commuting. In addition to calculating Scope 3 emissions for the University of Calgary, the report identifies some of the challenges in applying this type of reporting standard to a higher educational institution and recommends improvements required to continue to advance the quality and accuracy of Scope 3 reporting for the university in the future. This report finds that improvements in data quality and collection, development of improved reporting standards as well as emission factors and methodology that represent the local operating environment of the university will improve reporting in the future.
- ItemEmbargoA Comparison Of Grid Power And Solar Power For Electric Vehicle Fast Charging(2018) Lefebvre, NancieRange anxiety is a common complaint of electric vehicles (EVs). To help address this, a fast charging station was installed in Red Deer. In my study, I compared the scenarios of powering this station with the grid (Case I), solar power (Case II), or solar power paired with a battery bank (Case III) in both 2017 and 2030. This has not yet been studied for Alberta. My research answers the question: is it worth installing solar modules to power this fast charging station? Cases II and III produced less emissions and have higher gross profits than Case I. However, the capital cost and the area that the solar array takes up in Cases II and III are concerning. An issue with EV charging that was considered is demand charging. The installation of a solar array with or without a battery bank and arrangements with utility companies provide potential solutions.
- ItemEmbargoA Decision Making Model For Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Traffic In Quito(2005) Pérez Cajilema, Alex DanielThis Master’s Degree Project (MDP) develops a tool that supports the decision making process in the planning process within the municipality. It collects all the available information related to mobile sources in Quito and calculates the emission inventory in the city. An important characteristic is to give this information a geographical representation using Geographical Information Systems as the platform. At the same time it designs a set of different characteristics for the system that allows it to be used as a decision making tool support for pollution management in the city. This is a contribution towards the creation of an Urban Air Quality Management System that is necessary for setting real air quality standards for the city. This project also provides information that the municipality can utilize in its interactions with the community.
- ItemOpen AccessA Feasibility Study: Investigating Sustainable Building Practices And The Circular Economy In Modular Structures For Residential Use In Western Canada(2021-08) Cunningham, Nick; Peschl, HoustonThe building construction sector is responsible for significant consumption of natural resources, energy, and the production of waste. The increasing scarcity and costs of raw resources for buildings and their components has recently driven industry researchers to investigate alternative building practices. Shifting from linear to circular economies using innovative building concepts of modular construction have been previously identified for their combined potential to reduce inefficiencies, environmental impacts, and contribute towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals. The objective of this study is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of converging circular business models with residential modular construction in Western Canada. Using an investigative and exploratory approach, the qualitative methods of this research determined that the potential opportunities of incorporating circular principles with modular homebuilding are outweighed by the existing barriers. These concluding findings indicated that the practical application of this circular business model was not currently considered to be feasible.
- ItemOpen AccessA Financial and Technical Analysis of Alternative Heavy-Duty Trucking Options in Canada(2020-08) Kagan, Samuel; Doluweerawatta, GaneshCanada’s long-distance road freight transportation sector will require massive decarbonization efforts for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions in line with Canada’s targets of 30% by 2030 and 80% by 2050, relative to 2005 levels. Alternative fuel sources present a tangible pathway that is increasingly economically and operationally viable. Additionally, the Clean Fuel Standard (CFS) will likely lead to higher penetration of alternative fuels in Canada, as carbon intensity levels of fuel is enforced. The analysis in this study compares alternative technologies that may be used to transition diesel freight vehicles to low carbon or zero carbon freight vehicles. Despite the high initial costs, lithium-ion battery electric freight trucks have the lowest cost of carbon abatement among the options studies, depending on the carbon intensity of the electricity generated. The lifecycle emissions, total cost of ownership and cost of avoided emissions are compared amongst six scenarios.
- ItemEmbargoA Framework For Assessment And Selection Of Technologies For Remediation Of Abandoned Oil Pit Sludge(1997) Escobar, Luis Fernando
- ItemOpen AccessA Methodological Roadmap to Determine the Effectiveness of Carbon Policies(2020-08) Canney, Mateo Sanin; Lucas, Alastair R.; Millington, DinaraIn the struggle to combat climate change carbon policies have been presented as an efficient and effective method for reducing GHG emissions while minimizing economic impacts. Policy implementation worldwide has grown considerably over the past decade with an ever-growing percentage of global emissions being covered by different forms of carbon policies. There is however a low quantity of evidence-based literature on the effectiveness of the carbon pricing models currently in place. I document a statistical, econometric modeling technique developed and used by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI), to evaluate the Environmental Effectiveness of different Carbon Policies worldwide. A case study using the methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of the British Columbia Carbon tax is presented showing it to be ineffective at increasing emissions effectiveness while having a positive impact on economic growth.
- ItemOpen AccessA Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Seasonal Hydropower Generation and Pumped Energy Storage in an Alberta Irrigation Network(2022-08) Pearson, Kristina Marian EvelynI compared three new seasonal hydropower generation (summer) and pumped energy storage (winter) projects within existing Alberta irrigation infrastructure to evaluate their environmental and economic value. I used the historical irrigation flow rates, power pool pricing, and ancillary market data to determine the range and variability of the potential energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations, and determine the expected economic rate of returns. The energy storage was analyzed under three separate operating modes: energy arbitrage, regulating reserve, and spinning reserve market. All projects had a positive economic return, however, the only positive energy storage returns occurred when the energy storage was operating on the spinning reserve market. Furthermore, the energy storage operation was found to be a net emitter of GHGs, although the irrigation seasonal hydropower generation more than offset these emissions, and each project resulted in a net reduction in GHG emissions.
- ItemEmbargoA Pre-feasibility Study As To Whether An Anaerobic Treatment Concept Can Be Implemented In Northern Alberta Communities(2017) Tindyebwa, BelindaIn Northern Alberta, aging infrastructure and increasing demand places constraints on water security and sanitation. This study is aimed at determining whether an anaerobic treatment concept can be implemented in Northern Alberta communities. The objective is to assess the feasibility of the concept as well as the socio-economic, environmental and energy outcomes of the proposed facility. This study primarily uses literature review and data collected from the pilot project in Sneek, Netherlands where the anaerobic concept is applied. The results show that this concept is attractive due to the social benefits, low costs and production of biogas as renewable energy. This research is also timely given the Alberta Government’s 2016 Climate Leadership plan to reduce methane emissions by 45% before 2025. This study provides insight pertaining to the implementation of the proposed facility on First Nation reserves to cover the gap that exists between these communities and non-First Nations.
- ItemEmbargoA Preliminary Study For An Environmental Management System And Energy Efficiency Plan For A Ceramic Products Manufacturing Plant(2001) Vilatuña Gómez, Paul Fabricio
- ItemEmbargoA Reduction In Canada’s Freight Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions By 2030 And 2050 A Scenario Analysis(2017) Lof, JessicaGreenhouse gases (GHG) from Canada’s freight transportation must be reduced by 30% to meet 2030 climate change commitments and by 80% to meet Canada’s 2050 targets. Despite the importance of this sector to Canada’s economy, there is an absence of cost-effective, low carbon options and the pathways to a low carbon future remain undefined. To explore this challenge, the historical emissions profile for rail and road transport in Canada are deconstructed and insights are used to scenario model a low carbon future with a greater share of freight shifted to rail and the energy intensity of road transportation improved. While reducing emissions by 18 Mt CO2e/yr relative to a reference scenario in 2030, the low carbon scenario failed to meet Canada’s reduction targets. The results demonstrate that for Canada to meet its long-term economic and climate change goals, development in disruptive technology, such as alternative fuel systems, is needed.
- ItemOpen AccessA Step Towards A Lower Carbon Future: Integrating Closed Loop Geothermal Technology in District Cooling Applications(2020-08) Lea, Erin; Shor, Roman; Schwarz, BaileyThis research will assess the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of low-grade, closed loop geothermal heat extraction used for district cooling applications, specifically with the use of an Eavor-Loop™. This will be completed through literature review, interviews with subject matter experts, thermodynamic process simulations and optimization, and an economic analysis. As global warming, urbanization, and our dependency on digital storage increases, the world’s cooling demands continue to rapidly grow with predictions showing that cooling demands will outweigh heating demands by 2060. Majority of current cooling systems utilize fossil fuels, emitting a great deal of greenhouse gases that have gone unchecked for decades. With the utilization of Eavor-Loop™ and absorption chiller technology, a 6,600 RT facility was designed for data center operations in California, USA with both environmental and economic benefits. This design aims to open up new, affordable possibilities with low-grade geothermal resources to meet the world’s cooling demands.
- ItemEmbargoA Study Of Rural Electrification In Guyana: An Option For Solar Energy(2006) Britton, SandraThis project analyses the feasibility of providing electricity to the rural communities in Guyana. Most rural communities do not have electricity among other basic needs which is contributing to increased poverty in the villages. The intention of the project is to provide a framework that will lead to electricity coverage through renewable energy sources. This can act as an instrument for socioeconomic development to benefit not only the rural communities but also the entire country. The study analyses the feasibility of providing electricity to the communities using solar energy or diesel generation. The project provides a criterion for the establishment of a micro enterprise to act as the executing agency. Further, an implementation plan is developed to facilitate an easy implementation process. Communities participation is encouraged to aid in the decision making process and to cater for the needs of the community to promote a successful project and ensure sustainable development.
- ItemOpen AccessA Sustainable and Multi-Operator Approach to Water Management in Unconventional Oil and Gas Developments(2019-08-19) Ballesteros, Sergio; Benson, MichaelUnconventional oil and gas developments are causing significant footprints resulting from freshwater use, temporary water infrastructure and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with water hauling truck trips. These status quo industry practices can also prove costly to oil and gas operators. The present study explores the economic and environmental benefits that exist when permanent water infrastructure is planned at scale using entire water life cycle considerations. Focusing on an area of study west of Grand Prairie, AB, the author demonstrates the economy of scale of such a development and proposes that this opportunity is more easily captured when two or more operators collaborate through a multi-operator water management plan (MOWP). This framework prompts regulatory and business model challenges that would need to be addressed but in the light of climate change, increasing water management costs and water security considerations, MOWPs are nothing but an opportunity to be seized.
- ItemEmbargoA Sustainable Development Strategy For A Rural Ecuadorian Community(2002) Benson, Michael Guy
- ItemEmbargoAddressing Climate Change Through Collaboration Between The Public And Private Sectors(2015) Al-Guneid, NagwanThrough an online survey, this research explores collaboration between Calgary's local government and energy industry to address climate change through Employee Engagement, Community Investment, and Operations Performance within Calgary. This study utilizes the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Criteria of Control Model. The research recommends a \three-cornered" approach consisting of Calgary's energy business, local government, and residents. This study calls to engage responsible organizations in becoming agents of change; to educate residents on GHG's; and to bring the public and private sectors together on city resilience using the local government's long-term sustainability plans. There are 22 participating organizations with diverse pro les. Results show that most participants have GHG reduction strategies linked to addressing climate change. A considerable number have an \appetite" for collaboration, but a large percentage remains hesitant for unknown reasons. While the participants support Employee Engagement and Operations Performance, they show less willingness to employ Community Investment.
- ItemEmbargoAdjustments To Alberta’s Sger To Ensure The Polluter Pays(2017) Vinova, RebeccaSince 2007, Alberta’s oil and gas driven economy has been prescribed the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation (SGER) policy, using market-based economic instruments to drive down greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. This research project reviews the policy assumptions that underpin the development of the SGER and tests the policy’s commitment to holding large emitters of industries more accountable by proposing the definition of large emitter be changed from individual facilities to all facilities included under a corporate portfolio within Alberta. By comparing emissions data of facilities within Alberta, I found that large multinational corporations avoided responsibility for a portion of their corporate emissions that could have been covered under the compliance options of the SGER. Quantifying these outlier emissions and converting the hypothetical funds into real world applications of wind turbines, it is evident that the government lost opportunities for further economic investment in renewable projects.
- ItemEmbargoAdoption Of A Thermochemical Conversion Process For Energy Production In Santiago Nayarit Mexico(2011) Villarreal, Roberto Ivan HernandezThis research paper examines the potential for adopting a dedicated energy crop and implementing a thermochemical energy system respectively for the County of Santiago in Mexico. It recommends adoption of a torrefaction and pelletisation pre-treatment process for further treatment for the production of an energy carrier, namely, biochar. The feasibility of both energy crop adoption and the torrefaction process is examined from technical, economic, environmental and social perspectives. This study concluded that adopting a dedicated energy crop and implementing a torrefaction process is technically feasible, has valuable environmental benefits, and brings positive social and economic contributions both at local and national levels.
- ItemEmbargoAdoption Of Ceramic Membrane Technology In Albertas SAGD Operations(2013) Inkster, JordanOil sands operations are seen to have a negative impact to the environment by producing a large quantity of green house gas emissions as well as being a large consumer of water during the extraction process. As of right now, natural gas prices are too low to consider using carbon capture storage technologies to generate heat and electricity in SAGD operations which has led to the government of Alberta missing its target of reducing their green house gas emissions (CBC, 2013). The alternative is to improve the existing methods and technologies that decrease the water consumption as well as green house gas emissions. COSIA, in partnership with numerous oil and gas companies, are currently working on using ceramic membranes in their SAGD operations. What this new technology means is that it reduces the overall environmental impact by decreasing their total overall water consumption, improving efficiencies, energy expended on steam generation, and reducing their green house gas emissions, while still being able to use the same methods for oil extraction in Alberta’s oil sands. Ceramic membrane technology would allow the water recycling process to remove a number of steps as well as reducing the cost of de-oiling systems, filters, and lime softening (COSIA, 2013) However one of the main barriers that needs to be overcome is the cost to implement this technology means stopping production at a SAGD facility for a period of time which could effect the price of oil (COSIA, 2013).
- ItemEmbargoAdoption Of Iso 50001 Energy Management Systems Standard In The Canadian Industrial Sector(2013) Terhune, KathrineDespite the expected performance and associated cost savings of ISO 50001 Energy Management System Standard implementation, uptake of the standard has been slow in the Canadian industrial sector so far. This energy management gap can be explained by the presence of market failures and informational, organizational, economic and external market barriers, which are preventing optimal implementation rates from being achieved. Any programs, incentives or other factors that are employed to encourage uptake of the standard must focus on the drivers that are most relevant to the Canadian industrial sector specifically and be tailored to individual organization or sector needs. Relevant barriers and drivers for adoption of ISO 50001 in the Canadian industrial sector are presented and discussed in this research.