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dc.contributor.advisorReimer, Raylene
dc.contributor.authorHallam, Megan Carroll
dc.date.accessioned2013-10-02T17:33:17Z
dc.date.available2013-11-12T08:00:19Z
dc.date.issued2013-10-02
dc.date.submitted2013en
dc.identifier.citationHallam, M. C. (2013). Influence of Nutrients on Developmental Programming of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Wistar Rat Model (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/26518en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11023/1073
dc.description.abstractObjectives: To determine the effects of pre-natal diets high in protein or prebiotic fiber on offspring health in adulthood and to examine the potential for postnatal prebiotic fiber to mitigate the metabolic malprogramming associated with maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. Methods: Three main studies were performed. Maternal diets high in prebiotic fiber (21.6%; HF) or protein (40%, HP) were compared with control. Gut microbiota and milk were analyzed in the dams along with adult offspring body composition, plasma satiety hormones and gut microbiota after a high fat/sucrose (HFS) dietary challenge. Re-matching to maternal diet after the HFS challenge was examined in the second study. The HF diet was further examined as a weaning diet in offspring malprogrammed due to gestational protein restriction (PR) in the third study. Results: Two oligosaccharides were increased in maternal milk of HP and HF dams. HF dams also had increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to HP and C. In the offspring, HF diets decreased body weight and adiposity, and increased plasma PYY and the abundance of bifidobacteria in the gut across all studies. The HP diet increased offspring body weight and adiposity, but decreased HOMA-IR scores. Liver triglycerides were also increased, which in the second study was accompanied by upregulation of hepatic lipogenic genes (SREBP1c, ACC, FAS). In the first two studies HF decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide, a measure of metabolic endotoxemia. Re-matching to maternal diet blunted the typical response to the HF and HP diets with increased fasting glucose, energy intake and decreased bone mineral density seen in re-matched versus naïve offspring. In the final study with malprogrammed offspring, HF improved HOMA-IR scores in male offspring but also increased markers of intestinal permeability in female PR offspring. Conclusions: A maternal diet high in prebiotic fiber prevented excessive weight and adiposity gain in adult offspring during an HFS dietary challenge. While improving HOMA-IR scores, the HP diet lead to increased adiposity and increased hepatic lipogenesis. A weaning diet high in prebiotic fiber has beneficial effects on body weight and adiposity, plasma satiety hormones, glycemia and gut microbiota in malprogrammed offspring.en_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.
dc.subjectMolecular
dc.subjectPhysiology
dc.subjectNutrition
dc.subject.classificationPrebiotic Fiberen_US
dc.subject.classificationdevelopmental programmingen_US
dc.subject.classificationGut Microbiotaen_US
dc.subject.classificationsatiety hormonesen_US
dc.subject.classificationprotein dieten_US
dc.titleInfluence of Nutrients on Developmental Programming of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Wistar Rat Model
dc.typedoctoral thesis
dc.publisher.facultyGraduate Studies
dc.publisher.facultyKinesiology
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/26518
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.namePhD
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgary
atmire.migration.oldid1551
dc.publisher.placeCalgaryen
ucalgary.item.requestcopytrue


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