Three conodont-related studies utilize techniques that highlight the diverse
applicability and elucidate more about the nature of these ancient microfossils. These studies impact and utilize paleontology, geochemistry, biostratigraphy, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoecology, and the paleogeography of tectono-stratigraphic terranes. Electron microprobe analyses of conodont elements reveal internal chemical distributions which support the theory that conodont elements functioned as exposed teeth within the conodont animal’s oral cavity. The mineralized crown of the conodont element was partially embedded within soft tissue like other vertebrate teeth. To prevent unwanted sampling of diagenetic alteration, distributions of geochemically important chemical elements warrant consideration in geochemical studies investigating or utilizing conodonts. Paleozoic conodonts from Vancouver Island are described and figured in the most thorough compilation from the region. A wide variety of genera spanning the Mississippian through Early Permian represent a significant biostratigraphic and taxonomic contribution. Conodont Color Alteration Index values provide insight into the highly variable thermal history of the region. Interpretations of the upper Paleozoic units of Vancouver Island are improved by new biostratigraphic and paleoecologic data from conodonts. In conjunction with new stratigraphic and sedimentologic data, stratigraphic correlations and interpretations of depositional environment reveal a topographically variable basin with shallower water carbonates grading downslope into carbonate, mudstone, and chert. A combination of new and previously published fossil data, including conodonts, strongly indicate that, in the late Paleozoic, Vancouver Island was close to northwestern Pangaea and at latitudes comparable to southeastern British Columbia. Fossil and paleomagnetic data from the Mesozoic are congruent with this interpretation. Based on stratigraphic and paleogeographic differences, the Paleozoic of Vancouver Island is assigned to the Vancouver terrane separate from the Alaskan Wrangell terrane.