In order to gain better insight on the fundamental mechanisms governing friction and adhesion at the nanoscale, this thesis examines the friction and adhesion properties and mechanisms on the atomically-thin material, graphene. First, through conducting load dependent measurements of friction on mechanical exfoliated graphene samples, the dependence of the friction behaviour on graphene as a function of number of graphene layers, sliding history, environmental humidity, and air exposure time were examined. A mechanism was proposed to fully explain these experimental observations. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM) was applied to investigate the adhesion between a nanoscale tip and graphene covering a silicon substrate. The simulations, contrary to prior experimental results, showed a slight increase in the pull-off force as layer number increased. In addition, it was revealed that the layer-dependent pull-off forces result from the increasing tipgraphene interactions. This work contributes to gaining better insight on the applications to the lubrication mechanisms of graphene.