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dc.contributor.advisorStell, William Kenyon
dc.contributor.advisorHollenberg, Morley Donald
dc.contributor.authorCarr, Brittany Jane
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-18T18:12:58Z
dc.date.available2017-04-18T18:12:58Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.date.submitted2017en
dc.identifier.citationCarr, B. J. (2017). Molecular Targets of Atropine- and Mamba Toxin 3-Mediated Inhibition of Form-Deprivation Myopia in the Chick: A Case of Mistaken Receptor Identity? (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/26995en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11023/3703
dc.description.abstractMyopia is a refractive disorder characterized by the inability to see distant objects clearly. It is the most common childhood vision disorder, and the leading cause of adult visual impairment world-wide. Myopia prevalence is rising rapidly; it is estimated that 2.5 billion people will be affected by 2030, and any degree of myopia increases the risk of blindness-inducing comorbidities. There are no universally accepted pharmaceutical therapies to slow myopia progression, but some success has been found with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist atropine. There remains a paucity of investigations into the ocular signalling cascades modulated by atropine-treatment. Research in this area has been based on the assumption that because atropine, and a few other mAChR antagonists, inhibit myopia at extremely high concentrations, mAChRs must regulate myopia progression. Regulation of eye growth by mAChRs has never been proven conclusively. Here, I report that myopia-inhibition by atropine is dependent on induction of nitric oxide (NO), and that exogenous NO is sufficient to inhibit experimentally-induced form-deprivation myopia (FDM) on its own. In addition, I provide evidence that disproves the assumption that mAChRs are responsible for atropine- and mamba toxin 3-mediated myopia-inhibition in the chick. First, I demonstrate that alpha2-adrenoceptor (ADRA2) agonists can dose-dependently inhibit FDM. Second, I show that myopia-inhibiting mAChR antagonists can bind to, and block signalling by, human alpha2A-adrenoceptors (ADRA2A). Furthermore, I show that the relative inhibitory potencies (pIC50’s) of myopia-inhibiting mAChR antagonists at ADRA2A correlate better with their reported abilities to inhibit FDM in the chick than their relative pIC50’s at human and chicken mAChR M4. My data further our understanding of how the eye may know how large to grow. They provide two novel alternative targets for anti-myopia therapies (NO & ADRA2s), both of which would eliminate the most significant side-effects of atropine-treatment. They provide a range in which mAChR antagonists should be expected to act in a “specific” manner at human and chicken mAChR M4, and reinforce the need for caution in attributing the effects of high concentration drug to a specific receptor target.en_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.
dc.subjectNeuroscience
dc.subjectOphthalmology
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.subject.otherAtropine
dc.subject.otherMyopia
dc.subject.otherNon-Specific
dc.subject.otherOff-Target
dc.subject.otherMuscarinic Antagonist
dc.subject.otherMamba Toxin 3
dc.subject.otherNitric Oxide
dc.subject.otherAffinity
dc.subject.otherAlpha2-Adrenoceptor
dc.titleMolecular Targets of Atropine- and Mamba Toxin 3-Mediated Inhibition of Form-Deprivation Myopia in the Chick: A Case of Mistaken Receptor Identity?
dc.typedoctoral thesis
dc.publisher.facultyGraduate Studies
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/26995
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.namePhD
thesis.degree.disciplineNeuroscience
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgary
atmire.migration.oldid5430
dc.contributor.committeememberKurz, Ebba
dc.contributor.committeememberGordon, Grant
dc.publisher.placeCalgaryen
ucalgary.item.requestcopytrue


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University of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.