Passive force enhancement in striated muscle
SubjectResidual Force Enhancement
Cross Bridge Theory
Sliding Filament Theory
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractPassive force enhancement is defined as the increase in passive, steady-state, isometric force of an actively stretched muscle compared with the same muscle stretched passively to that same length. Passive force enhancement is long-lasting, increases with increasing muscle length and increasing stretch magnitudes, contributes to the residual force enhancement in skeletal and cardiac muscle, and is typically only observed at muscle lengths at which passive forces occur naturally. Passive force enhancement is typically equal to or smaller than the total residual force enhancement, it persists when a muscle is deactivated and reactivated, but can be abolished instantaneously when a muscle is shortened quickly from its stretched length. There is strong evidence that the passive force enhancement is caused by the filamentous sarcomeric protein titin, although the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying passive force enhancement remain unknown. Here we propose a tentative mechanism based on experimental evidence that associates passive force enhancement with the shortening of titin's free spring length in the I-band region of sarcomeres. We suggest that this shortening is accomplished by titin binding to actin and that the trigger for titin-actin interactions is associated with the formation of strongly bound cross-bridges between actin and myosin that exposes actin attachment sites for titin through movement of the regulatory proteins troponin and tropomyosin.
GrantingagencyNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)
CitationHerzog, W. (2019). Passive force enhancement in striated muscle. "Journal of Applied Physiology." [pps. 1-25]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00676.2018.
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