- ItemOpen AccessInnovations: A Journal of Politics Call for Papers(2007) Fitzsimmons, Scott; McDougall, Alex
- ItemOpen AccessParty Finance in Canada Since 2001(2007) Coletto, David; Fitzsimmons, Scott; McDougall, AlexMuch like electoral systems, election finance regimes are not benign institutions but central features of a political system that can have significant effects on the nature of democracy within a country. Money impacts the ability of political parties to contest elections and deliver their message to voters. It is an important resource to increase political knowledge and mobilize voters during an election. Therefore, assessing the state of political finance of Canadian political parties is essential to understanding the Canadian political environment.
- ItemOpen AccessThink Locally, Act Globally: Lessons to Learn from the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign(2007) Fay, Chris; Fitzsimmons, Scott; McDougall, AlexAs large concentrations of producers and consumers, cities are host to a number of environmental problems that only increase as more and more of the world’s people leave the countryside for the opportunities of urban centres. Fortunately, there is increasing recognition of this contribution in the form of transnational networks of cities, acting together to ameliorate urban environmental problems. One such example is the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign, a network of almost 700 of the world’s cities that has formed to confront climate change at the local level. Framing the question as a collective action problem, I consider what factors encourage the members of Cities for Climate Protection to come together and confront what is traditionally considered an issue to be solved at the international level. After examining these factors I point to lessons for other transnational networks of local level actors to take from Cities for Climate Protection. Cities are often seen to be at competition with one another to attract investment, but increased urban ecological degradation will necessitate a local response. Examining the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign sheds light on how this response can be achieved.
- ItemOpen AccessGlobalization and Global Governance: Prospects for International Cooperation Post 9/11(2007) Mawhinney, Emily B.; Fitzsimmons, Scott; McDougall, AlexWhen the twin towers of the World Trade Center fell September 11, 2001, a domino effect was triggered that has transformed the nature of the security dilemma, redefined intervention, and has begun to unravel the thread of the United Nations. In the post 9/11 world, it would appear that multilateralism and sovereignty have lost their appeal, according to some, and general effectiveness, according to many. How did this happen? While US unilateral action in Iraq could be considered to be the final turning point in the transformation of how security threats are perceived and responded too, is this really the end of multilateral intervention? In order to understand the nature and implications of the transformation of the international security dilemma, intervention, and multilateralism post 9/11, it is necessary to examine the behaviour that led to the US intervention in Iraq. What explains the US decision to take unilateral action against Iraq? Were decision-makers constrained by psychological factors, misperception, organizational routines? Can the American actions be classified as 'intervention' according to the pre-9/11 definition? How is intervention defined post-9/11? What are the implications of the differences in those definitions? Is this really the 'end of history' for multilateralism, humanitarianism? What are the implications for the security dilemma, future interventions, multilateral institutions? The United States' pre-emptive action against Iraq was constrained and falsely justified by organizational routines and misperception in the Bush administration, and ultimately seriously undermined the legitimacy of intervention, as well as the capabilities of multilateral institutions.
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluating the Masters of Strategy: A Comparative Analysis of Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, Mahan, and Corbett(2007) Fitzsimmons, Scott; Fitzsimmons, Scott; McDougall, AlexThis paper provides a brief overview of major inter-theoretical relationships between the works of Carl von Calusewitz, Sun Tzu, Alfred Mahan, and Julian Corbett. Specifically, it undertakes a comparative analysis of these authors’ writings on the nature of war; the use of theory in the study of warfare; the primacy of politics; limited and absolute war; the principle of decisive battle; the principle of concentration; the role of the people in war; friction, uncertainty, and the means to overcome these problems; and the offence and defence in war.