Intermittently operated slow sand filtration: a new water treatment process
Access to potable water supplies is a great problem in the developing world. Many attempts have been made to develop a cheap, effective and robust way of treating water at a household scale but none have gained wide acceptance. In early 1991 Dr. Manz developed a hypothesis which would allow the adaptation of continuous slow sand filtration to intermittent use. After several studies which showed the effectiveness of filters operated in this way, this research was commenced to more closely examine intermittently operated slow sand filtration. The investigation showned the filter is effective in removing 96% of faecal coliform indicators and that this can be further improved. A mathematical model of oxygen transfer into the filter bio-layer was developed and is supported by experimental data. Removals of contaminants occurred in two phases. First capture or interception and second, metabolism and consumption of contaminants. Design and operation recommendations may improve the effectiveness future designs and identified possible areas for future research.
Bibliography: p. 168-173.
Buzunis, B. J. (1995). Intermittently operated slow sand filtration: a new water treatment process (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/18990