Target: zero flaring in Ecuador's Cuyabeno wildlife reserve
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AbstractAssociated gas flaring has emerged as a controversial worldwide issue between the oil and gas industry and the public. It is not only a waste of energy and resources but it is also a threat to human and animal health, as well as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is scientific evidence that associated gas emission impacts the health of living beings. Studies show changes in nature because of excessive pollutant components in the atmosphere, which worsen climate change and increase the risk of global warming, and its related consequences. Scientific research and statistics prove the relation between global warming and the burning of fossil fuel. Flaring is one of the sources of increasing pollutants in the atmosphere because fossil fuel burning generates CO2 and other heat absorbing gases. Routine flaring with incomplete combustion generates pollutants which are a thread to human and animal health. Flaring in CWR is no different than flaring in other areas. The Kyoto Protocol demands that nations ratify their willingness to limit their dependence on fossil fuels to ensure the safety of human societies everywhere. The Global Gas Flaring Reduction Public-Private Partnership (GGFR) provides technical assistance to developing countries to help them meet their goals for flaring reduction by utilization of associated gas. This Master's Degree project (MDP) is designed to assist Petroproduccion, a branch of the national oil company PetroEcuador, to find the most appropriate alternative for reducing flaring currently occurring in three oil batteries within the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve (CWR) in Ecuador. The primary objective of this research is to find and develop a local market for the flared gas in CWR and to identify and discuss with Petroproduccion technical personnel the alternatives for utilization of flared gas as a practical way to reduce the threat of flaring emissions in CWR. Alternatives for reducing flaring were researched and evaluated for applicability in remote areas and an overview of financing opportunities with the Kyoto Protocol CDM carbon credit to make a viable project was researched. This project is an important tool for Petroproduccion's decision-making on several alternatives to flaring reduction. Cutting-edge technology applications were reviewed and screened for their environmental, economic and social aspects. Finally, the alternative of on-site power generation at each of the three batteries in CWR to generate electricity which will be transmitted by interconnected grids to all oil fields in CWR and to houses in the nearby communities is recommended. The ultimate benefits of the implementation of this project are the efficient utilization of flared gas, an increase in" oil production, and an improvement in the quality of life for people living in the communities of Cuyabeno, Sansahuari, and VHR. Key Words: Cuyabeno National Park. Associated gas flaring. Greenhouse gases. Climate Change. Global Warming. Ecuador electrification plan. Alberta Energy Utility Board (EUB). Clean Air Strategy Alliance. CAPPo Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR). Kyoto Protocol. Clean Development Mechanism CDM). Certificate Emissions Reduction (CER). Carbon Credit. Technology transfer.
Bibliography: p. 233-240