Pen-and-ink line drawing techniques are frequently used to depict
form, tone, and texture in artistic, technical, and scientific illustration.
In non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), there has been considerable progress
on reproducing traditional pen-and-ink techniques for rendering 3D objects.
However, formal evaluation and validation of these NPR images remain an
important open research problem. In this paper we present an observational
study with three groups of users to examine their understanding and assessment
of hand-drawn pen-and-ink illustrations of objects in comparison with NPR
renditions of the same 3D objects. The results show that people perceive
differences between those two types of illustration but that those that look
computer-generated are still highly valued in terms of scientific
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