Existing computer-controlled systems lack both teachability and
adaptability. It is difficult for end users to specify new procedures
to them, or even to modify old ones. This paper introduces two case
studies of how non-programmers may define and modify procedures, an
activity they are encouraged to conceptualize as teaching rather
than programming. In contrast to many AI approaches to learning, the
emphasis is on making the systems accessible through a suitably-engineered
human-machine interface. The first system allows a teacher to correct a
previously-taught robot action sequence by making on-line adjustments
using his natural verbal ability. The second is a programming metaphor
for office users which complements the object-oriented method of
conventional direct manipulation systems by providing an "office clerk"
that the user can instruct by giving examples and commands.
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