The Psycho-Structural Cybernetic Model, Feedback, and Problem Gambling: A New Theoretical Approach
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AbstractThe majority of etiological models of problem gambling fail to address various elements leading to this maladaptive behaviour pattern, despite recognizing that a multitude of fac-tors contribute to its development and maintenance. Models focus either on the individual (agentic) or on the structural level of analysis. Consequently, most models inherently fall prey to reductionism. This bi-polarity of models has led to the search for a more wide-ranging method. This article describes fourth-order cybernetic theory, a comprehensive and al-ternative approach to address the problems inherent in earlier etiological models of problem gambling. Cybernetics, a feedback system, displays great potential in addressing the com-plex interactions between the agentic and structural levels that lead to problem gambling and its maintenance.
Copyright © Masood Zangeneh, Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction