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Title: Assessing inter-rater agreement of environmental audit data in a matched case-control study on bicycling injuries
Authors: Romanow, Nicole T.R.
Couperthwaite, Amy B.
McCormack, Gavin R.
Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto
Rowe, Brian H.
Hagel, Brent E.
Keywords: Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data;Adolescent;Adult;Bicycling/injuries;Case-Control studies;Child;Environment Design/statistics & numerical data;Observer variation;Public Health/methods
Issue Date: 30-Jan-2013
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Citation: Romanow, N. T., Couperthwaite, A. B., McCormack, G. R., Nettel-Aguirre, A., Rowe, B. H., & Hagel, B. E. (2013). Assessing inter-rater agreement of environmental audit data in a matched case-control study on bicycling injuries. Injury prevention, 19(5), 336-341.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Environmental audit tools must be reliable in order to accurately estimate the association between built environmental characteristics and bicycling injury risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine the inter-rater agreement of a built environment audit tool within a case-control study on the environmental determinants of bicycling injuries. METHODS: Auditor pairs visited locations where bicycling injuries occurred and independently recorded location characteristics using the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan (SPACES). Two case groups were defined: (1) where a bicyclist was struck by a motor-vehicle (MV) and (2) where the bicyclist's injuries required hospitalisation. The two corresponding control groups were (1) where non-MV bicycle-related injuries occurred and (2) where minor bicycle-related injuries occurred. Inter-rater reliability of each item on the tool was assessed using observed agreement and κ with 95% CI. RESULTS: Ninety-seven locations were audited. Inter-observer agreement was generally high (≥95%); most items had a 1-2% difference in responses. Items with ≥5% differences between raters included path condition, slope and obstructions. For land use, path and roadway characteristics, κ ranged from 0.3 for presence of offices and cleanliness to 0.9 for schools and number of lanes; overall, 78% of items had at least substantial agreement (κ≥0.61). For bicyclists struck by a MV the proportion of items with substantial agreement was 60%, compared with 73% for non-MV related injuries. For hospitalisations and minor bicycle-related injuries, 76% of items had substantial agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement was substantial for most, but not all SPACES items. The SPACES provides reliable quantitative descriptions of built environmental characteristics at bicycling injury locations.
Description: This article has been accepted for publication in BMJ Injury Prevention following peer review. The definitive copyedited, typeset version is available online at: Post print version of article deposited according to BMJ license agreement August 20, 2015.
Appears in Collections:Romanow, Nicole T. R.

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