This paper describes, summarizes and comments on the empirical studies in the
use of three information technologies to support managerial activities: decision support systems (DSS), group decision support systems (GDSS), and expert systems (ES). These are collectively labeled as managerial support systems (MSS). A classification scheme to organize empirical research in MSS is proposed. An overview of empirical work on two major research themes, namely MSS “design” and “effects of use” of MSS, is then presented for the years 1981-1988. Following this overview, the research strategies suitable for empirical research in MSS are discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions about future research directions in the field.