This study investigates the distribution and use of modality in Kainai Blackfoot in the presence of the morpheme aahk-. By using utterance in context tasks and judgement tasks, I elicited data from three native speakers. This study is limited to combinations of strong and weak modals of the epistemic and deontic type. Modality that uses aahk- in Kainai Blackfoot consists of the combination of the morpheme aahk- and a second (optional) morpheme, which join as a single lexical item based on negation use and surface order. Kainai Blackfoot makes a four-way modal distinction. One distinction is between strong and weak modals and a second is made between epistemic and deontic type modals. However, the weak modals have a level of overlap and can be ambiguous.
Lewis, B. (2014). The distribution and use of aahk- modality in Kainai Blackfoot. Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics, 28(Fall), 49-63.