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Open Access
Strategies to prevent blood loss and reduce transfusion in emergency general surgery, WSES-AAST consensus paper
(2024-07-16) Coccolini, Federico; Shander, Aryeh; Ceresoli, Marco; Moore, Ernest; Tian, Brian; Parini, Dario; Sartelli, Massimo; Sakakushev, Boris; Doklestich, Krstina; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Horer, Tal; Shelat, Vishal; Hardcastle, Timothy; Bignami, Elena; Kirkpatrick, Andrew; Weber, Dieter; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Leppaniemi, Ari; Tan, Edward; Kessel, Boris; Isik, Arda; Cremonini, Camilla; Forfori, Francesco; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Chiarugi, Massimo; Ball, Chad; Ottolino, Pablo; Hecker, Andreas; Mariani, Diego; Melai, Ettore; Malbrain, Manu; Agostini, Vanessa; Podda, Mauro; Picetti, Edoardo; Kluger, Yoram; Rizoli, Sandro; Litvin, Andrey; Maier, Ron; Beka, Solomon G.; De Simone, Belinda; Bala, Miklosh; Perez, Aleix M.; Ordonez, Carlos; Bodnaruk, Zenon; Cui, Yunfeng; Calatayud, Augusto P.; de Angelis, Nicola; Amico, Francesco; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Damaskos, Dimitris; Coimbra, Raul; Chirica, Mircea; Biffl, Walter L.; Catena, Fausto
Abstract Emergency general surgeons often provide care to severely ill patients requiring surgical interventions and intensive support. One of the primary drivers of morbidity and mortality is perioperative bleeding. In general, when addressing life threatening haemorrhage, blood transfusion can become an essential part of overall resuscitation. However, under all circumstances, indications for blood transfusion must be accurately evaluated. When patients decline blood transfusions, regardless of the reason, surgeons should aim to provide optimal care and respect and accommodate each patient’s values and target the best outcome possible given the patient’s desires and his/her clinical condition. The aim of this position paper was to perform a review of the existing literature and to provide comprehensive recommendations on organizational, surgical, anaesthetic, and haemostatic strategies that can be used to provide optimal peri-operative blood management, reduce, or avoid blood transfusions and ultimately improve patient outcomes.
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Open Access
Siloed mentality, health system suboptimization and the healthcare symphony: a Canadian perspective
(2024-07-17) Lau, Robin S.; Boesen, Mari E.; Richer, Lawrence; Hill, Michael D.
Abstract Measuring and optimizing a health system is challenging when patient care is split between many independent organizations. For example, patients receive care from their primary care provider, outpatient specialist clinics, hospitals, private providers and, in some instances, family members. These silos are maintained through different funding sources (or lack of funding) which incentivize siloed service delivery. A shift towards prioritizing patient outcomes and keeping the patient at the centre of care is emerging. However, competing philosophies on patient needs, how health is defined and how health is produced and funded is creating and engraining silos in the delivery of health services. Healthcare and health outcomes are produced through a series of activities conducted by diverse teams of health professionals working in concert. Health professionals are continually learning from each patient interaction; however, silos are barriers to information exchange, collaborative evidence generation and health system improvement. This paper presents a systems view of healthcare and provides a systems lens to approach current challenges in health systems. The first part of the paper provides a background on the current state and challenges to healthcare in Canada. The second part presents potential reasons for continued health system underperformance. The paper concludes with a system perspective for addressing these challenges.
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Open Access
A protocol for the formative evaluation of the implementation of patient-reported outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services as part of a learning health system
(2024-07-15) McCabe, Erin; Dyson, Michele; McNeil, Deborah; Hindmarch, Whitney; Ortega, Iliana; Arnold, Paul D.; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Clements, Ryan; Santana, Maria J.; Zwicker, Jennifer D.
Abstract Background Mental health conditions affect one in seven young people and research suggests that current mental health services are not meeting the needs of most children and youth. Learning health systems are an approach to enhancing services through rapid, routinized cycles of continuous learning and improvement. Patient-reported outcome measures provide a key data source for learning health systems. They have also been shown to improve outcomes for patients when integrated into routine clinical care. However, implementing these measures into health systems is a challenging process. This paper describes a protocol for a formative evaluation of the implementation of patient-reported measures in a newly operational child and adolescent mental health centre in Calgary, Canada. The purpose is to optimize the collection and use of patient-reported outcome measures. Our specific objectives are to assess the implementation progress, identify barriers and facilitators to implementation, and explore patient, caregivers and clinician experiences of using these measures in routine clinical care. Methods This study is a mixed-methods, formative evaluation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Participants include patients and caregivers who have used the centre’s services, as well as leadership, clinical and support staff at the centre. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews will be conducted to assess barriers and facilitators to the implementation and sustainability of the use of patient-reported outcome measures, as well as individuals’ experiences with using these measures within clinical care. The data generated by the patient-reported measures over the first five months of the centre’s operation will be analyzed to understand implementation progress, as well as validity of the chosen measures for the centres’ population. Discussion The findings of this evaluation will help to identify and address the factors that are affecting the successful implementation of patient-reported measures at the centre. They will inform the co-design of strategies to improve implementation with key stakeholders, which include patients, clinical staff, and leadership at the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the implementation of patient-reported outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services and our findings can be used to enhance future implementation efforts in similar settings.
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Open Access
Workload and spirometry associated with untethered swimming in horses
(2024-07-19) Leguillette, R.; McCrae, P.; Massie, S.; Filho, S. A.; Bayly, W.; David, F.
Abstract Background Swimming has been used empirically for rehabilitation and conditioning of horses. However, due to challenges imposed by recording physiological parameters in water, the intensity of free swimming effort is unknown. Objectives Measure the physiological workload associated with untethered swimming in horses. Five fit Arabian endurance horses were assessed while swimming in a 100 m-long indoor pool. Horses were equipped with a modified ergospirometry facemask to measure oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and ventilatory parameters (inspired/expired volumes, VI, VE; peak inspiratory/expiratory flows, PkVI, PkVE; respiratory frequency, Rf; minute ventilation, VE; inspiratory/expiratory durations and ratios, tI, tE, tI/ttot, tE/ttot); and an underwater electrocardiogram that recorded heart rate (HR). Postexercise venous blood lactate and ammonia concentrations were measured. Data are reported as median (interquartile ranges). Results Horses showed bradypnea (12 breaths/min (10–16)) for the first 30 s of swimming. V̇O2 during swimming was 43.2 ml/(kg.min) (36.0–56.6). Ventilatory parameters were: VI = 16.7 L (15.3–21.8), VE = 14.7 L (12.4–18.9), PkVI = 47.8 L/s (45.8–56.5), PkVE = 55.8 L/s (38.3–72.5), Rf = 31.4 breaths/min (20.0–33.8), VE = 522.9 L/min (414.7–580.0), tI = 0.5 s (0.5–0.6), tE = 1.2 s (1.1–1.6), tI/ttot = 0.3 (0.2–0.4), tE/ttot = 0.7 (0.6–0.8). Expiratory flow tracings showed marked oscillations that coincided with a vibrating expiratory sound. HR was 178.0 bpm (148.5–182.0), lactate = 1.5 mmol/L (1.0–1.9) and ammonia = 41.0 µmol/L (36.5–43.5). Conclusions Free (untethered) swimming represents a submaximal, primarily aerobic exercise in horses. The breathing pattern during swimming is unique, with a relatively longer apneic period at the beginning of the exercise and an inspiratory time less than half that of expiration.
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Open Access
What role does compassion have on quality care ratings? A regression analysis and validation of the SCQ in emergency department patients
(2024-07-18) Boss, Harrison; MacInnis, Cara; Simon, Roland; Jackson, Jeanette; Lahtinen, Markus; Sinclair, Shane
Abstract Objective To examine the unique contribution of patient reported experiences of compassion to overall patient quality care ratings. Additionally, we assess whether patients’ reported experiences of compassion in the emergency department differed between sociodemographic groups. Methods Provincial data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 03/01/2022 to 09/05/2022 from 14 emergency departments in Alberta, Canada. Data from 4501 emergency department patients (53.6% women, 77.1% White/European) were analyzed. The primary outcome was patients’ overall quality care ratings during their most recent ED visit. Measures included in the hierarchical stepwise regression included demographics, and those drawn from the Emergency Department Patient Experience of Care (EDPEC) questionnaire: single and multi-item measures of patient information (e.g., patient perceptions health) and patient experience (e.g., physician communication), and compassion (e.g., Sinclair Compassion Questionnaire; SCQ-ED). Results Data from 4501 ED patients were analysed. Stepwise hierarchical linear multiple regression indicated that of 21 included variables, compassion most strongly predicted overall quality care ratings (b=1.61, 95% CI 1.53-1.69, p<.001, f2=.23), explaining 19% unique variance beyond all other measures. One-way ANOVAs indicated significant demographic differences in mean compassion scores, such that women (vs. men) reported lower compassion (MD=-.15, 95% CI=-.21, -.09, p<.001), and Indigenous (vs. White) patients reported lower compassion (MD=-.17, 95% CI =-.34, -.01, p=.03). Conclusions Compassion was identified as a key contributor to ED overall quality care ratings, and experiences of compassion varied as a function of demographics. Patient-reported compassion is an indicator of quality care that needs to be formally integrated into clinical care and quality care assessments.