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Open Access
Ethical Relationality in Land-based Practices: Braiding Stories, Land, and Spirit
(2024-05-15) Starlight, Teena Marie; Friesen, Sharon; Mistaken Chief, Duane; Sengupta, Pratim; Scott, David; Donald, Dwayne
Abstract The purpose of this study is to find ways to sustain, validate and legitimize Tsuut’ina ninisha (way of life), and restore land-based practices that are critical for identity and survival within Tsuut’ina Nation schools. The research question guiding this study is: What is required to sustain, validate, and legitimize Tsuut’ina ninisha uwa gunaha and restore land-based practices to revive a diminishing way of life crucial for identity and survival, within Tsuut’ina Nation schools, as perceived and advocated by Tsuut’ina Elders? Indigenous Métissage is used as a research praxis in this study to braid and weave my personal story, Tsuut’ina Elder’s stories and stories of Western attempts of boundary crossing and funds of knowledge as a means to understand the ethical space and ethical relationality needed to create land-based curriculum for Tsuut’ina students that is respectful, reciprocal, relevant, relational, and responsible to Tsuut’ina peoples. Becoming familiar with theories of boundary crossing and funds of knowledge, teachers could have a better understanding of the importance of implementing Tsuut’ina ninisha into their daily teaching practices. Results from the study indicate that fostering community, facilitating experiential learning, nurturing care, and providing spiritual guidance are imperative for sustaining, validating, and legitimizing Tsuut’ina ninisha and revitalizing land-based practices crucial for Tsuut’ina children and youth within Tsuut’ina schools. Furthermore, the study illuminates how the concept of boundary crossing takes on profound significance when imbued with the teachings and wisdom of Tsuut’ina Elders. This enriched understanding of boundary crossing, infused with spiritual essence, encompasses the essential elements required for harmonious coexistence of Alberta Programs of Study and Tsuut’ina teachings within Tsuut’ina schools. These findings carry significant implications for systemic reforms in education, particularly for Indigenous students in reserve schools. Keywords: Indigenous Métissage, Ethical Space, Ethical Relationality, Funds of Knowledge (FoK), Boundary Crossing, Tsuut’ina ninisha (way of life)
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Embargo
Development of a Multi-Axis Robotic Embedded Bioprinting Platform and its Process Chain
(2024-05-14) Shin, Joonhwan; Lee, Jihyun; Kim, Keekyoung; Wong, Joanna; Kim, Kangsoo
3D bioprinting is a tissue engineering technology, and it has successfully developed simple tissues. However, the current bioprinting methods that rely on layer-based cartesian mechanisms face significant challenges in creating complex and vascularized tissues necessary for developing fully functional tissues. This limitation highlights the need for innovative approaches that enhance bioprinting's flexibility and precision. This thesis presents the development and application of a multi-axis robotic bioprinting platform and its process chain that overcomes traditional constraints and enables the fabrication of complex 3D scaffolds from all directions within the expanded workspace. This research involves embedded bioprinting, an extrusion-based method that can bioprint soft and low-viscosity bioinks while maintaining desired printing fidelity using a viscoplastic suspension bath. The multi-axis robotic bioprinting platform, equipped with a 6-degree-of-freedom robotic arm and a pneumatic extrusion system, integrates computer-aided design (CAD) extraction, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) slicing, robot simulation, script adjustment, and robot control. This process chain facilitates the seamless transition from digital models to physical bioprinted constructs. Two case studies experimentally validate the platform's superiority over traditional bioprinting techniques. The first focuses on freeform surface bioprinting, highlighting the system's adaptability in reproducing intricate tissue contours. The second explores the fabrication of a hollow tubular structure essential for engineering complex vascular networks. In summary, this thesis contributes to developing the technology and processes necessary to standardize in situ/in vivo bioprinting for fabricating artificial tissues and organs directly on damaged sites.
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Open Access
An investigation of two periglacial landforms on ignimbrite blockslopes in Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory
(2024-05-14) Boulding, Adam David; Hugenholtz, Christopher; Moorman, Brian; Dutchak, Alex
An expedition to the subarctic mountain of Campsite Peak, Yukon Territory, within the Kluane National Park and Reserve (KNPR), was conducted during the summer of 2019 to investigate two undocumented periglacial forms identified in satellite imagery. The overall goal of this MSc research is to present and measure these two features spatially, morphologically, and sedimentologically, placing them within the periglacial literature and hypothesizing plausible formative processes. The first study documents a feature similar to stone-banked solifluction terraces, termed blockslope terraces (BSTs) within this research, and are found in large numbers on low- to mid-slopes of Campsite Peak above the treeline, mantling a blocky open matrix of ignimbrite cobble-to-boulder material. BSTs differ from expected solifluction characteristics by showing apparent periodicity, large sample sizes, oblique orientations relative to their slope, and material too coarse to support the formation of ice needed for active solifluction. In-field morphological measurements combined with spatial and remote sediment sieving using photography and structure from motion modelling provided the exploratory measurements needed to place BSTs within the literature. It is the hypothesis of this research that BSTs are either a relict gelifluction feature from deglaciation, or nivation features of uncommon size and occurrence. The second study documents a feature, termed banded lichen formations (BLFs) within this research, found on the upper slopes of Campsite Peak. BLFs exhibit an alternating dark-and-light pattern caused by the presence and absence of lichens on the lighter felsic tuff material of Campsite Peak. It is hypothesized that BLFs are attributed to periglacial processes such as solifluction and frost heave, the form and relief of which are influenced by slope gradient and availability of fine-grained sediment in the system, leading to diverse spatial patterns, even across the same slopes. This research introduces two novel forms of periglacial landforms, both occurring on ignimbrite material, and both occurring on other mountains in KNPR of the same geologic unit. Further, the results of these studies underline the knowledge gaps in the solifluction and nivation literature surrounding landforms occurring on coarse, blocky material.
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Open Access
Investigation of electrical properties of perovskite-type metal oxides
(2024-05-14) Selvakumar, Bhavadharini; Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Dolgos, Michelle; Shimizu, George; Sutherland, Todd
Materials development has led to the growth of several technologies to reduce carbon footprints and to develop a sustainable environment. These strategies have led to the advancement of several renewable energy storage and conversion systems like fuel cells, batteries, solar cells, and capacitors that have been beneficial and environmentally benign. Moving towards clean energy includes using renewable energy sources and safe and sustainable materials for energy applications. However, the existing issues with materials development are the use of expensive and scarcely available raw materials, complex and multiple steps in material processing, and not exploring new family of materials. This thesis addresses the use of studying the electrical properties of a family of materials known as perovskite-type oxides. The thesis focuses on the solid-state synthesis of transition metal doped double perovskite-type Ba2Ca0.67Nb1.33-xCuxO6-δ (x = 0, 0.05, 0.13 and 0.26) Ba2Ca0.67-xCuxNb1.33O6-δ (x = 0 and 0.13) and BaY0.5Nb0.5O3 (BYN). The study includes the morphology of these materials, investigation of the electrical and dielectric properties of the above materials in different atmospheres, and their chemical stability in CO2 and moisture containing environments. Among the compositions studied, Ba2Ca0.67Nb1.2Cu0.13O6-δ shows the highest conductivity of 4.6 × 10-4 Scm-1 in dry air at 600 ˚C. The dielectric studies were also conducted among the investigated samples, the highest dielectric constant exhibited by Ba2Ca0.67Nb1.2Cu0.13O6-δ (x = 0.13) was 587 and dielectric loss of 2 at 106 Hz at 500 ˚C in air. In general, Ba2Ca0.67Nb1.2Cu0.13O6-δ (x = 0.13) shows highest dielectric constant values in the range of ~100 – 600 and lowest dielectric loss exhibited by Ba2Ca0.67Nb1.28Cu0.05O6-δ (x = 0.05) was ~0.3 – 0.6 at 500 ˚C in various atmospheres. The second part of the thesis focuses on the synthesis of multi-element doped BaY0.5Nb0.5O3 (BYN) perovskite oxides, where alkaline earth and rare earth elements were doped in the A- and B-site of BYN. Synthesis and structural optimizations were also carried out to come up with pure single-phase materials. Out of all the compositions synthesized, (Ba1-xA’x)(Y1/2Nb1/2-y-zM’yM”z)O3-δ (A’ = Sr, Ca; M’ = Mg and M” = Ni) (x = 0, 0.5; y = 0, 0.1; z = 0, 0.05, 0.1), the PXRD pattern reveals the crystallization of only BaY0.5Nb0.5O3 and Ba0.5Sr0.5Y0.5Nb0.4Mg0.1O3-δ in a cubic crystal system with Pm3̅m space group. Although, the crystal formation was successful for these compositions, several attempts were made to modify and optimize the synthesis and sintering conditions. The surface morphology of the pellet samples shows BaY0.5Nb0.5O3 containing more pores and grain boundaries than that of Ba0.5Sr0.5Y0.5Nb0.4Mg0.1O3-δ, emphasizing better particles formed in doped BYN. The chemical stability of these compositions in CO2- and moisture-containing environment shows their potential to be used in devices for energy applications that are present in such operating conditions.
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Open Access
Endotyping in ARDS: one step forward in precision medicine
(2024-05-14) Côté, Andréanne; Lee, Chel H.; Metwaly, Sayed M.; Doig, Christopher J.; Andonegui, Graciela; Yipp, Bryan G.; Parhar, Ken K. S.; Winston, Brent W.
Abstract Background The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) includes only clinical characteristics. Understanding unique patient pathobiology may allow personalized treatment. We aimed to define and describe ARDS phenotypes/endotypes combining clinical and pathophysiologic parameters from a Canadian ARDS cohort. Methods A cohort of adult ARDS patients from multiple sites in Calgary, Canada, had plasma cytokine levels and clinical parameters measured in the first 24 h of ICU admission. We used a latent class model (LCM) to group the patients into several ARDS subgroups and identified the features differentiating those subgroups. We then discuss the subgroup effect on 30 day mortality. Results The LCM suggested three subgroups (n1 = 64, n2 = 86, and n3 = 30), and 23 out of 69 features made these subgroups distinct. The top five discriminating features were IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-a, and serum lactate. Mortality distinctively varied between subgroups. Individual clinical characteristics within the subgroup associated with mortality included mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio, pneumonia, platelet count, and bicarbonate negatively associated with mortality, while lactate, creatinine, shock, chronic kidney disease, vasopressor/ionotropic use, low GCS at admission, and sepsis were positively associated. IL-8 and Apache II were individual markers strongly associated with mortality (Area Under the Curve = 0.84). Perspective ARDS subgrouping using biomarkers and clinical characteristics is useful for categorizing a heterogeneous condition into several homogenous patient groups. This study found three ARDS subgroups using LCM; each subgroup has a different level of mortality. This model may also apply to developing further trial design, prognostication, and treatment selection.