Browsing by Author "Carpendale, Sheelagh"
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- ItemOpen Access3d tabletop display interaction(2010) Hancock, Mark; Carpendale, Sheelagh
- ItemOpen Access'A delicate agreement': exploring subtle gaze-triggered interaction in art(2011) MacDonald, Lindsay; Leblanc, Jean-René; Carpendale, SheelaghElevators are awkward spaces. There are unspoken rules about what behaviour is acceptable while riding with a stranger. If these rules are broken, the remainder of the elevator ride becomes unbelievably uncomfortable. If a stranger casts their gaze in any direction other than towards the doors, this can threaten the delicate agreement that tacitly exists between the occupants of the elevator, turning the mood into an emotional pressure cooker. A Delicate Agreement is a gaze-triggered interactive art installation that explores this concept. It is a set of elevator doors with a peephole in either side that entices viewers to peer inside and observe an animation of the passengers. Each elevator passenger, or character, has a programmed personality that enables them to act and react to the other characters' behaviour and the viewers' gaze. The result is the emergence of a rich interactive narrative made up of encounters between the characters.
- ItemOpen AccessA framework for element-based computer graphics(2006) Mason, Katherine Merle; Carpendale, Sheelagh
- ItemOpen AccessA Socio-Technical Approach to Designing a Visual Analytics Decision Support Tool for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta(2016-02-03) Adagha, Ogheneovo; Levy, Richard; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Gates, Cormack; Lindquist, Mark; Keenan, Thomas; Boulanger, PierreWind energy is recognized as an important component of the world’s energy mix. Despite its widely acknowledged advantage as a renewable energy resource, the development of wind farms in the last 20 years has posed a critical challenge for land use planning in Alberta. In view of this, there are compelling arguments that effective, place-specific decision support tools would enable stakeholders identify appropriate placement locations for wind farms in Alberta. The research presented in thesis empirically examined ways in which a decision support tool can be developed to achieve the goal stated above. A socio-technical approach was used to identify the decision support requirements of wind energy stakeholders in Alberta and to develop a conceptual framework in response to the requirements. Further research was conducted to determine the underlying attributes of effective visual analytics decision support tools, and how those attributes can be applied to the design of the proposed tool. Based on the established requirements, attributes, and conceptual framework, a proof-of-concept, web-based Alberta Wind decision support tool (AB–WINDEC) tool was implemented using iterative prototyping techniques. The prototype was first assessed through an expert appraisal. It was subsequently evaluated in focus groups with wind energy stakeholders in Alberta. Focus group participants reviewed the conceptual system design in the following areas: usability, usefulness, analytical support, and capability to support tasks and data management. These findings suggest that AB–WINDEC can be useful for educational purposes, public engagement, high-level analysis, risk assessment, and collaboration. The main contributions of this thesis and the research described in it are four-fold: It extends current knowledge by bringing together, for the first time, the decision support requirements of stakeholders involved in planning the placement of wind farms in Alberta. Thus, it was possible to develop a conceptual framework that integrated the dual aspects of AB–WINDEC as a social and technical decision support tool. Progress was made in multi-disciplinary areas of visual analytics, product design, product experience, prototyping, and design research. Finally, the thesis shows that knowledge gained from empirical research can inform the development of an effective visual analytics decision support tool.
- ItemOpen AccessAlternate 3d control-display mappings(2007) Keijser, Jeroen; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Barker, Kenneth E.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Autobiographical Reflection on Designing Visualizations for Personal Contexts(2020-10-23) Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tang, Anthony; Willett, Wesley; Neustaedter, Carman; Liang, Hung-Ling (Steve); Vande Moere, AndrewUnderstanding personally relevant data can help us reflect upon ourselves or learn something new. Research in information visualization has shown that the use of interactive, graphical representations of data (data visualizations) enhance our ability to process information and learn. However, most of our current understanding of designing these representations stem from task-oriented professional/work contexts. In contrast, recently, the Infovis community has been interested in designing visualizations for more personal contexts. This knowledge can be applied to emergent research on data visualization usage in broader perspectives such as casual and personal visualizations, and visualizations for public engagement, where end-users tend to be non-experts, and where aesthetics and engagement may take precedence over task efficiency. In this thesis, I take an autobiographical approach in which I analyzed eight years’ worth of archived data (through design journals) on my work in designing and implementing data visualizations. These visualizations’ use cases range from individuals logging their activities, to several people (both novices and experts) convening in public engagement settings. Central to my body of work is an emphasis on the intentional use of visual aesthetics in designing data representations. Reflecting upon this body of work and experiences, I give a case-by-case, narrative reconstruction of my design process. In these narratives, I explore the prioritization of the aesthetic look-and-feel of visual encodings on the same level as people’s data exploration tasks. With this longitudinal insight, my thesis outlines a process of how a data visualization designer can design nonconventional data representations for personal contexts from sketches to working prototypes.
- ItemOpen AccessAstral: Prototyping Mobile and IoT Interactive Behaviours via Streaming and Input Remapping(2018-07) Ledo, David; Vermeulen, Jo; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Greenberg, Saul; Oehlberg, Lora A.; Boring, SebastianWe present Astral, a prototyping tool for mobile and Internet of Things interactive behaviours that streams selected desktop display contents onto mobile devices (smartphones and smartwatches) and remaps mobile sensor data into desktop input events (i.e., keyboard and mouse events). Interactive devices such as mobile phones, watches, and smart objects, offer new opportunities for interaction design– yet prototyping their interactive behaviour remains an implementation challenge. Additionally, current tools often focus on systems responding after an action takes place as opposed to while the action takes place. With Astral, designers can rapidly author interactive prototypes live on mobile devices through familiar desktop applications. Designers can also customize input mappings using easing functions to author, fine-tune and assess rich outputs. We demonstrate the expressiveness of Astral through a set of prototyping scenarios with novel and replicated examples from past literature which reflect how the system might support and empower designers throughout the design process.
- ItemOpen AccessAuthoring Data Visualizations with Physical Template Tools(2019-01-14) Wun, Tiffany; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Oehlberg, Lora A.; Wong, Nelson; Reardon, JoelIn our data-rich society, it is increasingly important that all people are able to use and understand data. Large data sets commonly require expert knowledge to design and disseminate accessible and information-rich visualizations, resulting in visualizations that work well for experts but are less accessible for the general public. My research question addresses how we can support the use of visualization to increase data accessibility for the general public. One approach is to encourage people to self-author data representations suited to their own comprehension needs using simple techniques. However, providing data visualization authoring tools for the general public remains an ongoing challenge. My thesis explores the use of physical tools—specifically, rulers and block-printing stamps—as novel methods of authoring data visualizations, leveraging the advantages of ready-made visualization templates while providing freedom to personalize visual elements. To first explore the possibility of designing physical tools for authoring data visualizations, I present prototypes for several modifiable, computationally-fabricated ruler and stamp designs, created with the goal of allowing users to quickly create repeating visual elements when authoring visual elements on paper. From my design efforts, stamps show promise as low-effort, easy-to-create tools; I therefore conducted a workshop study to understand how people approach visualization authoring when given the ability to create their own physical template tools. In this study, participants authored visualizations on paper using hand-carved stamps made from potatoes and sponges. My results show that participants were able to author meaningful data visualizations from their self-created stamps, as well as several unique traits and uses of block-printing stamps. I conclude the thesis by discussing issues around expressivity and effectiveness of personalizing physical authoring tools, identify implications for the design and assembly of primitives in potential visualization authoring kits, and applications for physical authoring tools in the bigger scope of data democratization.
- ItemMetadata onlyAuthorship in Art/Science Collaboration is Tricky(2013) MacDonald, Lindsay; Ledo, David; Nacenta, Miguel; Brosz, John; Carpendale, Sheelagh
- ItemOpen AccessAwareness and Coordination: A Calendar for Families(2005-05-27) Elliot, Kathryn; Carpendale, SheelaghIn this paper, we describe the AwareCo calendar visualization, designed to provide a means for awareness and coordination between family members with diverse schedules. The AwareCo calendar system does this by supporting the three major domestic calendar uses: Coordination and Negotiation of schedules, Review and Reminders of what is to come, and Awareness of the locations and activities of others. We first present the calendar s persona based design process. We then describe the visualization and interaction, and discuss how it supports family calendar qualities and uses.
- ItemMetadata onlyBancada: Mobile Zoomable Lenses for Collaborative Geospatial Exploration(2nd Collaboration meets Interactive Surfaces Workshop (CmIS), 2014) Rodrigues, Francisco Marinho; Seyed, Teddy; Maurer, Frank; Carpendale, Sheelagh
- ItemMetadata onlyBancada: Using Mobile Zoomable Lenses for Geospatial Exploration(ACM, 2014) Rodrigues, Francisco Marinho; Seyed, Teddy; Maurer, Frank; Carpendale, SheelaghNowadays, looking at the path between two points on a city map has become a simple task using any modern tablet, smartphone or laptop. However, when exploring maps with different information across multiple layers and scales, users experience information discontinuity. Bancada is a multi-display system developed to investigate the exploration of geospatial information using multiple mobile devices in a multi-display environment. In Bancada, tablets are Zoomable Magic Lenses that augment, through specific geospatial layers, an overview map displayed on a tabletop or on a wall display. Users interact with lenses using touch gestures to pan and zoom; and multi-layer maps can be built by overlapping different lenses. Currently, Bancada is being used to research user interfaces separated across multiple devices and interactions with high-resolution mobile devices. Future work with Bancada includes (i) evaluating the user performance when using one tablet or multiple tablets to control all lenses; (ii) exploring what and how interactions can be performed on an overview map; and (iii) exploring how lenses can be changed.
- ItemOpen AccessBelief at first sight: Data visualization and the rationalization of seeing(John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2019-12) Kosminsky, Doris; Walny, Jagoda; Vermeulen, Jo; Knudsen, Søren; Willett, Wesley J.; Carpendale, SheelaghData visualizations are often represented in public discourse as objective proof of facts. However, a visualization is only a single translation of reality, just like any other media, representation devices, or modes of representation. If we wish to encourage thoughtful, informed, and literate consumption of data visualizations, it is crucial that we consider why they are often presented and interpreted as objective. We reflect theoretically on data visualization as a system of representation historically anchored in science, rationalism, and notions of objectivity. It establishes itself within a lineage of conventions for visual representations which extends from the Renaissance to the present and includes perspective drawing, photography, cinema and television, as well as computer graphics. By examining our tendency to see credibility in data visualizations and grounding that predisposition in a historical context, we hope to encourage more critical and nuanced production and interpretation of data visualizations in the public discourse.
- ItemOpen AccessBeyond Pixels: Illustration with Vector Graphics(2006-02-14) Isenberg, Tobias; Brennecke, Angela; Costa Sousa, Mario; Carpendale, SheelaghThis report presents a novel vector rendering pipeline that allows us to easily break the pixel barrier and create high-quality illustrations. Recently, most graphic research has been directed towards rendering pixel images that appear realistic. In contrast, we investigate the generation of vector graphic illustrations using non-photorealistic techniques such as line rendering and Gooch shading. By combining vector output from both shading and line rendering of 3D models we create high-quality illustrations that can directly be used in print reproduction. Our approach uses a vector graphic pipeline that tracks multiple attributes of strokes and uses them for stylization. This allows to have multiple layers of line rendering such as different stroke types or visible and hidden parts of strokes, each treated differently according to specific stylization rules. Using high quality vector graphics (as opposed to pixel renditions) for representing illustration is essential, in particular, in the print reproduction process. Foremost, vector graphics can be reproduced at any desired resolution; they do not suffer from the resolution dependence of pixel images. In addition, only vector graphics can capture fine details accurately while maintaining a reasonable file size. Finally, vector graphics do not need to be half-toned when printed as long as spot colors are used. Even if some layers of the image use, e. g., shading, only those parts of the vector graphic need to be half-toned that actually do not make use of the available spot colors. Thus, we can combine both shading and line layers without compromising print quality.
- ItemOpen AccessBio-inspired Design and Information Visualization(2018-04-19) Eggermont, Marjan José; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Hushlak, Gerald; Kolarevic, Branko; Mazalek, Ali; Oehlberg, Lora A.; Hollenberg, Morley DonaldBio-inspired design in recent years has been used successfully as a methodology in disciplines such as engineering, architecture, product design, and business. While still in an infant stage in terms of adoption in universities, those who have embraced the methodology have experienced promising design outcomes, enthusiasm from students, and an enrichment in research and teaching. One of the issues is that while bio-inspired design has been around for a very long time semantic disconnect between disciplines keeps the methodology undefined and at times, unrecognized. In this dissertation, I explore the potential of bio-inspired design for information visualization and seek to help fulfill information visualization’s goal of ‘amplifying cognition’ using design inspired by nature. I will directly investigate the different kinds of ways bio-inspired design might be useful. Of interest is where along the information visualization pipeline bio-inspiration is considered and in what capacity: is it used as metaphor, analogy, concept, form, function, process, system, or other? There are examples of bio-inspired algorithms in information visualization but are there direct inspirations from nature that could also be useful? How does the bio-inspired design community think about its field? How do they define it? Where do they think biomimics should focus their efforts? How do students work with this methodology? How do instructors best introduce the material in the context of information visualization? What was my own experience trying to implement this approach to my own data set? I present three approaches to explore this potential. I investigate the state of the art in both computational media design and bio-inspired design through a journalistic and design-oriented approach to create an active survey of these fields. I summerize ideas and opinions from a large set of interviews and design tools providing insights into the world of bio-inspiration. Experiential teaching is my second approach to investigate how students processed and worked with the idea of bio-inspiration for design and information visualization. This provided useful concepts for developing teaching and design approaches. Third was a research creation approach where I take a bio-inspired design lens to an online dataset in the hopes of creating a useful tool for the community. Challenges and observations gave new insights into bio-inspiration for information visualization. The dissertation ends with a reflection about the role of bio-inspired design for information visualization. The insights gained from the three approaches suggest further challenges for research and design.
- ItemMetadata onlyBlended Interaction for Information Visualization(2013) Walny, Jagoda; Carpendale, Sheelagh
- ItemOpen AccessThe Bohemian Bookshelf Supporting Serendipitous Discoveries through Visualization(2011-08-17T21:23:21Z) Thudt, Alice; Hinrichs, Uta; Carpendale, SheelaghSerendipity, a trigger of exciting discoveries when we least expect it, is currently being discussed as an often neglected but still important factor in information seeking processes, research, and ideation. In this paper we explore serendipity as an information visualization goal. In particular, we introduce the Bohemian Bookshelf visualization that aims to support serendipitous exploration of digital book collections. The Bohemian Bookshelf consists of five interlinked visualizations, each representing a unique (over)view of the collection. It facilitates serendipitous discoveries by (1) offering multiple access points by providing visualizations of different perspectives on the book collection, (2) enticing curiosity through abstract, metaphorical, and visually distinct representations of the collection, (3) highlighting alternate adjacencies between books, (4) providing multiple pathways for exploring the data collection in a flexible way, (5) supporting immediate previews of books, and (6) enabling a playful approach to information exploration. Our design goals and their exploration through the Bohemian Bookshelf visualization opens up a discussion on how to promote serendipity through information visualization.
- ItemMetadata onlyThe Bohemian Bookshelf: Supporting Serendipitous Book Discoveries through Information Visualization(ACM, 2012) Thudt, Alice; Hinrichs, Uta; Carpendale, SheelaghSerendipity, a trigger of exciting yet unexpected discoveries, is an important but comparatively neglected factor in information seeking, research, and ideation. We suggest that serendipity can be facilitated through visualization. To explore this, we introduce the Bohemian Bookshelf, which aims to support serendipitous discoveries in the context of digital book collections. The Bohemian Bookshelf consists of five interlinked visualizations each offering a unique overview of the collection. It aims at encouraging serendipity by (1) offering multiple visual access points to the collection, (2) highlighting adjacencies between books, (3) providing flexible visual pathways for exploring the collection, (4) enticing curiosity through abstract, metaphorical, and visually distinct representations of books, and (5) enabling a playful approach to information exploration. A deployment at a library revealed that visitors embraced this approach of utilizing visualization to support open-ended explorations and serendipitous discoveries. This encourages future explorations into promoting serendipity through information visualization.
- ItemOpen AccessBubbleType: Enabling Text Entry within a Walk-Up Tabletop Installation(2008) Hinrichs, Uta; Schmidt, Holly; Isenberg, Tobias; Hancock, Mark; Carpendale, SheelaghWe address the issue of enabling text entry for walk-up-and-use interactive tabletop displays located in public spaces. Public tabletop installations are characterized by a diverse target user group, multiperson interaction, and the need for high approachability and intuitiveness. We first define the design constraints of text-entry methods for public tabletop installations such as clear affordances, audience expertise, support of direct-touch interaction, visual appearance, space requirements, multi-user support, and technical simplicity. We then describe an iterative design process that was informed by these constraints and led to the development of two stylus keyboard prototypes—BubbleQWERTY and BubbleCIRCLE—for use in interactive public tabletop installations.
- ItemOpen AccessBuilding with Data: Bridging Architectural Design Practices and Information Visualization(2022-01-28) Hull, Carmen; Willett, Wesley; Hushlak, Gerald; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Ens, Barrett; Bejat, Laleh; Keefe, DanielOur work seeks to augment new information visualization research with strategies and workflows from the fields of design and architecture. To this end, this research explores how to adopt tools and methods that can integrate the best of physical and digital modalities to multiple contexts and scales in HCI and data visualization. Designing information visualization systems creates a need for a design approach that addresses and ties together two main threads – 1) how we as humans interact with and make sense of our environment and 2) how we as designers create meaning through geometry, form, and material encodings. While the research community within data visualization has primarily focused on screen-based data visualizations, there is now an opportunity to study how we can create insight with hybrid physical and digital representations of data through the lens of architectural practice. My colleagues and I have conducted this research at the intersection of model building, diagrams, and generative design, applying this knowledge to the design of multifaceted digital environments, from micro to macro scale, in two- and three- dimensional worlds. To develop this research, we first observe and characterize the architectural methods of model making and their potential to facilitate the design process of interactive systems. Next, we describe how physical hand-crafted and digitally fabricated models of different types assist in various stages of the design process. To illustrate how model building could support fluid exploration of multiple data sets, we built a 3D interactive campus model visualizing multiple layers of building-specific data. The system uses physical models as tangible tokens on an interactive touch surface, visualizing energy use and weather data daily over a two-year period. As an extension of our design, we developed a conceptual framework from this project to highlight the potential of physical models for supporting embodied exploration of spatial and non-spatial visualizations through fluid interaction. We then examine the use of diagrams in architecture and develop a conceptual framework based on the concept of data tectonics to organize and structure the design process of physical and immersive data systems. To further study the use of diagrams and generative design for data visualization, I collaborated with researchers at Tableau Software to develop a patented Tableau extension that self-generates and evolves up to thirty different design permutations at a time. The system randomly assigns a pre-specified palette of mark types to a chosen dataset giving designers the option of adding or deleting options that they deem promising. As a final project for this research, we brought the three principles of model making, diagramming, and generative design together to create a large-scale physical and immersive data visualization. In collaboration with the Department of Social Work at the University of Calgary, the project uses diagrams and generative design to prototype a series of three-dimensional encodings visualizing Global Gender Gap statistics from the World Economic Forum. The tent-like forms evoke sheltering structures that can be registered, experienced, and measured with the whole body. For this project, we applied the diagrammatic approach used in parametric design to traditional information visualization design principles and identified workflows that support rapid exploration and fabrication of multiple data design alternatives. There is no doubt that data and digital technologies, including machine learning and AI, will be part of our human fabric in the future, but what that looks like and how it is structured is still up to us. We need artists, and more diversity in general, in order to do this to the best of our potential as humans. In determining which practices encourage the creation of rich data-driven environments, this research underscores the fundamental need of humans to make sense of the world, inspiring designers to develop new spatial constructs that integrate both the art and science of the built environment.