Browsing by Author "Kastelic, John P"
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- ItemOpen AccessBacteriophages isolated from dairy farm mitigated Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells cultured in vitro(2021-01-19) Shi, Yuxiang; Zhao, Wenpeng; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Chen, Peng; Liu, Yongxia; Kastelic, John P; Han, Bo; Gao, JianAbstract Background Klebsiella pneumoniae, an environmental pathogen causing mastitis in dairy cattle, is often resistant to antibiotics. K. pneumoniae was used as the host bacteria to support bacteriophage replication; 2 bacteriophages, CM8-1 and SJT-2 were isolated and considered to have therapeutic potential. In the present study, we determined the ability of these 2 bacteriophages to mitigate cytotoxicity, pathomorphological changes, inflammatory responses and apoptosis induced by K. pneumoniae (bacteriophage to K. pneumoniae MOI 1:10) in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) cultured in vitro. Results Bacteriophages reduced bacterial adhesion and invasion and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release). Morphological changes in bMECs, including swelling, shrinkage, necrosis and hematoxylin and eosin staining of cytoplasm, were apparent 4 to 8 h after infection with K. pneumoniae, but each bacteriophage significantly suppressed damage and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations. K. pneumoniae enhanced mRNA expression of TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cyt-c in bMECs and increased apoptosis of bMECs, although these effects were mitigated by treatment with either bacteriophage for 8 h. Conclusions Bacteriophages CM8-1 and SJT-2 mitigated K. pneumoniae-induced inflammation in bMECs cultured in vitro. Therefore, the potential of these bacteriophages for treating mastitis in cows should be determined in clinical trials.
- ItemOpen AccessKlebsiella pneumoniae infection causes mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in bovine mammary epithelial cells(2021-02-10) Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Jv; Yang, Jingyue; Yi, Bing; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Man; Kastelic, John P; Han, Bo; Gao, JianAbstract Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of bovine mastitis worldwide, is strongly pathogenic to bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). Our objective was to determine the role of mitochondrial damage in the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae on bMECs, by assessing several classical indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Two K. pneumoniae strains (HLJ-D2 and HB-AF5), isolated from cows with clinical mastitis (CM), were used to infect bMECs (MAC-T line) cultured in vitro. In whole-transcriptome analysis of bMECs at 6 h post-infection (hpi), there were 3453 up-regulated and 3470 down-regulated genes for HLJ-D2, whereas for HB-AF5, there were 2891 up-regulated and 3278 down-regulated genes (P < 0.05). Based on GO term enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), relative to the controls, the primary categories altered in K. pneumoniae-infected bMECs included cellular macromolecule metabolism, metabolic process, binding, molecular function, etc. Infections increased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde concentrations and formation of reactive oxygen species in bMECs. Additionally, both bacterial strains decreased (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity in bMECs at 6 and 12 hpi. Furthermore, infections decreased (P < 0.05) mitochondrial membrane potential and increased (P < 0.01) mitochondrial calcium concentrations. Finally, severe mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation, as well as mitochondrial rupture and cristae degeneration, were detected in infected bMECs. In conclusion, K. pneumoniae infections induced profound mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in bMECs; we inferred that this caused cellular damage and contributes to the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae-induced CM in dairy cows.
- ItemOpen AccessPrevalence and Genetic Basis of Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-aureusStaphylococci Isolated from Canadian Dairy Herds(Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018-01) Nobrega, Diego B; Naushad, Sohail; Naqvi, S Ali; Condas, Larissa A Z; Saini, Vineet; Kastelic, John P; Luby, Christopher; De Buck, Jeroen; Barkema, Herman WEmergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major concern for the dairy industry worldwide. Objectives were to determine: (1) phenotypic and genotypic prevalence of drug-specific resistance for 25 species of non-aureus staphylococci, and (2) associations between presence of resistance determinants and antimicrobial resistance. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine resistance profiles for 1,702 isolates from 89 dairy herds. Additionally, 405 isolates were sequenced to screen for resistance determinants. Antimicrobial resistance was clearly species-dependent. Resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin was common inStaphylococcus gallinarum(prevalence of 98%), whereasS. cohniiandS. arlettaewere frequently resistant to erythromycin (prevalence of 63 and 100%, respectively). Prevalence of resistance was 10% against β-lactams and tetracyclines. In contrast, resistance to antimicrobials critically important for human medicine, namely vancomycin, fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin, was uncommon (< 1%). Genes encoding multidrug-resistance efflux pumps and resistance-associated residues in deducted amino acid sequences of thefolPgene were the most frequent mechanisms of resistance, regardless of species. The estimated prevalence of themecAgene was 17% forS. epidermidis. Several genes, includingblaZ, mecA, fexA, erm, mphC, msrA, andtetwere associated with drug-specific resistance, whereas other elements were not. There were specific residues ingyrBfor all isolates of species intrinsically resistant to novobiocin. This study provided consensus protein sequences of key elements previously associated with resistance for 25 species of non-aureusstaphylococci from dairy cattle. These results will be important for evaluating effects of interventions in antimicrobial use in Canadian dairy herds.
- ItemOpen AccessVirulence gene profiles: alpha-hemolysin and clonal diversity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine clinical mastitis in China(2018-03-02) Zhang, Limei; Gao, Jian; Barkema, Herman W; Ali, Tariq; Liu, Gang; Deng, Youtian; Naushad, Sohail; Kastelic, John P; Han, BoAbstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of bovine mastitis, is known for its ability to acquire to antimicrobial resistance and to secrete numerous virulence factors that can exacerbate inflammation. In addition, alpha-hemolysin has an important role in S. aureus infections, diversity of the hla gene (that produces alpha-hmolysin) in S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis has not been well characterized. The objective was, therefore, to determine diversity of virulence genes, hla gene sequences, and clonal profiles of S. aureus from bovine mastitis in Chinese dairy herds, and to evaluate inter-relationships. Results The antimicrobials resistance varies from as low as 1.9% (2/103) for CTX to as high as 76.7% (79/103) for penicilin in the 103 isolates and 46 (44.7%) S. aureus were determined as multi-resistant isolates with diverse resistance patterns. Thirty-eight virulence gene patterns (with variable frequencies) were identified in the 103 isolates and correlated with MLST types, indicating a great diversity. Although the hla gene also had great diversity (14 genotypes), Hla peptides were relatively more conserved. With 7 clonal complexes identified from 24 spa types and 7 MLST types. Regarding the letter, ST 97 was the dominant type in S. aureus from bovine mastitis in China. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, there was a distinct evolutionary relationship between the hla gene and MLST. Conclusion Multi-resistant S. aureus occurred in bovine mastitis with diverse resistance patterns. The diversity of virulence gene profiles, especially the hla gene and, their relationship with molecular types were reported for the first time in S. aureus from bovine mastitis, which will be useful for future studies on immunogenicity and vaccine development. In addition, based on the distinct evolutionary relationship between the hla gene and MLST types, we inferred that the hla gene has potential role for molecular typing of S. aureus.