Browsing by Author "Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram"
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- ItemOpen AccessAn implementation history of primary health care transformation: Alberta’s primary care networks and the people, time and culture of change(2020-12-05) Leslie, Myles; Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Birdsell, Judy; Forest, P. G; Henderson, Rita; Gray, Robin P; Schraeder, Kyleigh; Seidel, Judy; Zwicker, Jennifer; Green, Lee AAbstract Background Primary care, and its transformation into Primary Health Care (PHC), has become an area of intense policy interest around the world. As part of this trend Alberta, Canada, has implemented Primary Care Networks (PCNs). These are decentralized organizations, mandated with supporting the delivery of PHC, funded through capitation, and operating as partnerships between the province’s healthcare administration system and family physicians. This paper provides an implementation history of the PCNs, giving a detailed account of how people, time, and culture have interacted to implement bottom up, incremental change in a predominantly Fee-For-Service (FFS) environment. Methods Our implementation history is built out of an analysis of policy documents and qualitative interviews. We conducted an interpretive analysis of relevant policy documents (n = 20) published since the first PCN was established. We then grounded 12 semi-structured interviews in that initial policy analysis. These interviews explored 11 key stakeholders’ perceptions of PHC transformation in Alberta generally, and the formation and evolution of the PCNs specifically. The data from the policy review and the interviews were coded inductively, with participants checking our emerging analyses. Results Over time, the PCNs have shifted from an initial Frontier Era that emphasized local solutions to local problems and featured few rules, to a present Era of Accountability that features central demands for standardized measures, governance, and co-planning with other elements of the health system. Across both eras, the PCNs have been first and foremost instruments and supporters of family physician authority and autonomy. A core group of people emerged to create the PCNs and, over time, to develop a long-term Quality Improvement (QI) vision and governance plan for them as organizations. The continuing willingness of both these groups to work at understanding and aligning one another’s cultures to achieve the transformation towards PHC has been central to the PCNs’ survival and success. Conclusions Generalizable lessons from the implementation history of this emerging policy experiment include: The need for flexibility within a broad commitment to improving quality. The importance of time for individuals and organizations to learn about: quality improvement; one another’s cultures; and how best to support the transformation of a system while delivering care locally.
- ItemOpen AccessHow Health in All Policies are developed and implemented in a developing country? A case study of a HiAP initiative in Iran(Oxford Journals, 2016-12) Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Sedoghi, Zeynab; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, VahidPopulation health is influenced by many factors beyond the control of health system which should be addressed by other sectors through inter-sectoral collaboration (ISC). Countries have adopted diverse initiatives to operationalize ISC for health such as establishment of Councils of Health and Food Security (CHFSs) and development of provincial Health Master Plans (HMPs) in Iran. The literature, however, provides meager information on how these initiatives have been moved into the top policy agenda, how and by whom they have been formulated and what factors enable or inhibit their implementation. In addressing these knowledge gaps, we employed a qualitative case study approach, incorporating mixed methods: in-depth interviews and a textual analysis of policy documents. Iran founded the Supreme Council of Health and Food Security (SCHFS) at national level in 2006 followed by provincial and district CHFSs to ensure political commitment to ISC for health and Health in All Policies (HiAPs). In 2009, the SCHFS mandated all provincial CHFSs across the country to develop provincial HMP to operationalize the HiAP approach and Kerman was among the first provinces which responded to this call. We selected Kerman province HMP as a case study to investigate the research questions raised in this study. The study revealed two types of leverage, which played crucial role in agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation of HMP including politics (political commitment) and policy entrepreneurs. The multiple streams model was found to be informative for thinking about different stages of a policy cycle including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation. It was also found to be a useful framework in analyzing HiAP initiatives as these policies do not smoothly and readily reach the policy agenda.
- ItemRestrictedObesity prevention: co-framing for intersectoral ‘buy-in’(Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-25) Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, RonaldThe multi-factorial causes of obesity demand integrated prevention policies with the collaboration of diverse sectors, although to date, there is little evidence of engagement by non-health sectors in developing obesity prevention policies. In this commentary, we develop a three-step argument for improving intersectoral collaboration. We first note that to encourage non-health sectors in developing and implementing integrated preventive policies, obesity should be reframed as a systemic problem rather than its dominant framing as a matter of individual behavioural change. We then propose a co-framing of obesity, such that it aligns with the policy goals of diverse non-health sectors. Finally, drawing on the network governance literature, we argue that a network-based governance approach with an independent network administrative organization will best facilitate multisectoral collaboration through a successful co-framing strategy.
- ItemOpen AccessRecruitment of caregivers into health services research: lessons from a user-centred design study(2019-05-20) Leslie, Myles; Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; MacKean, GailAbstract Background With patient and public engagement in many aspects of the healthcare system becoming an imperative, the recruitment of patients and members of the public into service and research roles has emerged as a challenge. The existing literature carries few reports of the methods – successful and unsuccessful – that researchers engaged in user-centred design (UCD) projects are using to recruit participants as equal partners in co-design research. This paper uses the recruitment experiences of a specific UCD project to provide a road map for other investigators, and to make general recommendations for funding agencies interested in supporting co-design research. Methods We used a case study methodology and employed Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and Focus Group discussions to collect data. We recruited 25 family caregivers. Results Employing various strategies to recruit unpaid family caregivers in a UCD project aimed at co-designing an assistive technology for family caregivers, we found that recruitment through caregiver agencies is the most efficient (least costly) and effective mechanism. The nature of this recruitment work – the time and compromises it requires – has, we believe, implications for funding agencies who need to understand that working with caregivers agencies, requires a considerable amount of time for building relationships, aligning values, and establishing trust. Conclusions In addition to providing adaptable strategies, the paper contributes to discussions surrounding how projects seeking effective, meaningful, and ethical patient and public engagement are planned and funded. We call for more evidence to explore effective mechanisms to recruit family caregivers into qualitative research. We also call for reports of successful strategies that other researchers have employed to recruit and retain family caregivers in their research.
- ItemOpen AccessStakeholders’ engagement in co-producing policy-relevant knowledge to facilitate employment for persons with developmental disabilities(2020-04-17) Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Wittevrongel, Krystle; Petermann, Lisa; Graham, Ian D; Zwicker, Jennifer DAbstract Background Persons with developmental disabilities (PWDD) face a number of individual, environmental and societal barriers when seeking employment. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) involves ongoing and dynamic interactions between researchers and stakeholders for the purpose of engaging in mutually beneficial research to address these types of multi-faceted barriers. There is a knowledge gap in the IKT literature on effective stakeholder engagement strategies outside of the dissemination stage to inform policy. In this paper, we report on a number of engagement strategies employed over a 2-year period to engage a wide range of stakeholders in different stages of an IKT project that aimed to investigate the ‘wicked’ problem of employment for PWDD. Method Our engagement plan included multiple linked strategies and was designed to ensure the meaningful engagement of, and knowledge co-production with, stakeholders. We held two participatory consensus-building stakeholder policy dialogue events to co-produce knowledge utilising the nominal group technique and the modified Delphi technique. A total of 31 and 49 stakeholders engaged in the first and second events, respectively, from six key stakeholder groups. Focused engagement strategies were employed to build on the stakeholder dialogues for knowledge mobilisation and included a focus group attended only by PWDD, a stakeholder workshop attended only by policy/decision-makers, a webinar attended by human resources professionals and employers, and a current affairs panel attended by the general public. Results Our findings suggest that the level of engagement for each stakeholder group varies depending on the goal and need of the project. Our stakeholder dialogue findings highlight the inherent challenges in co-framing and knowledge co-production through the meaningful engagement of multiple stakeholders who hold different ideas and interests. Focused outreach is needed to foster relationships and trust for meaningful engagement. Conclusions In addition to providing guidance on how to implement adaptable meaningful engagement strategies, these findings contribute to discussions on how IKT projects are planned and funded. More studies to explore effective mechanisms for engaging a wide range of stakeholders in IKT research are needed. More evidence of successful engagement strategies employed by researchers to achieve meaningful knowledge co-production is also key to advancing the discipline.
- ItemOpen AccessThe care capacity goals of family carers and the role of technology in achieving them(2020-02-27) Leslie, Myles; Gray, Robin P; Eales, Jacquie; Fast, Janet; Magnaye, Andrew; Khayatzadeh-Mahani, AkramAbstract Background As global populations age, governments have come to rely heavily on family carers (FCs) to care for older adults and reduce the demands made of formal health and social care systems. Under increasing pressure, sustainability of FC’s unpaid care work has become a pressing issue. Using qualitative data, this paper explores FCs’ care-related work goals, and describes how those goals do, or do not, link to technology. Methods We employed a sequential mixed-method approach using focus groups followed by an online survey about FCs’ goals. We held 10 focus groups and recruited 25 FCs through a mix of convenience and snowball sampling strategies. Carer organizations helped us recruit 599 FCs from across Canada to complete an online survey. Participants’ responses to an open-ended question in the survey were included in our qualitative analysis. An inductive approach was employed using qualitative thematic content analysis methods to examine and interpret the resulting data. We used NVIVO 12 software for data analysis. Results We identified two care quality improvement goals of FCs providing care to older adults: enhancing and safeguarding their caregiving capacity. To enhance their capacity to care, FCs sought: 1) foreknowledge about their care recipients’ changing condition, and 2) improved navigation of existing support systems. To safeguard their own wellbeing, and so to preserve their capacity to care, FCs sought to develop coping strategies as well as opportunities for mentorship and socialization. Conclusions We conclude that a paradigm shift is needed to reframe caregiving from a current deficit frame focused on failures and limitations (burden of care) towards a more empowering frame (sustainability and resiliency). The fact that FCs are seeking strategies to enhance and safeguard their capacities to provide care means they are approaching their unpaid care work from the perspective of resilience. Their goals and technology suggestions imply a shift from understanding care as a source of ‘burden’ towards a more ‘resilient’ and ‘sustainable’ model of caregiving. Our case study findings show that technology can assist in fostering this resiliency but that it may well be limited to the role of an intermediary that connects FCs to information, supports and peers.