Browsing by Author "McLane, Patrick"
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- ItemOpen AccessBeing a member of a novel transitional case management team for patients with unstable housing: an ethnographic study(2022-02-19) Garcia-Jorda, Dailys; Fabreau, Gabriel E.; Li, Queenie K. W.; Polachek, Alicia; Milaney, Katrina; McLane, Patrick; McBrien, Kerry A.Abstract Background Homeless and unstably housed individuals face barriers in accessing healthcare despite experiencing greater health needs than the general population. Case management programs are effectively used to provide care for this population. However, little is known about the experiences of providers, their needs, and the ways they can be supported in their roles. Connect 2 Care (C2C) is a mobile outreach team that provides transitional case management for vulnerable individuals in a major Canadian city. Using an ethnographic approach, we aimed to describe the experiences of C2C team members and explore their perceptions and challenges. Methods We conducted participant observations and semi-structured interviews with C2C team members. Data analysis consisted of inductive thematic analysis to identify themes that were iteratively discussed. Results From 36 h of field observations with eight team members and 15 semi-structured interviews with 12 team members, we identified five overarching themes: 1) Hiring the right people & onboarding: becoming part of C2C; 2) Working as a team member: from experience to expertise; 3) Proud but unsupported: adding value but undervalued; 4) Team-initiated coping: satisfaction in the face of emotional strain, and; 5) Likes and dislikes: committed to challenges. Conclusions A cohesive team of providers with suitable personal and professional characteristics is essential to care for this complex population. Emotional support and inclusion of frontline workers in operational decisions are important considerations for optimal care and program sustainability.
- ItemOpen AccessFirst Nations emergency care in Alberta: descriptive results of a retrospective cohort study(2021-05-04) McLane, Patrick; Barnabe, Cheryl; Holroyd, Brian R; Colquhoun, Amy; Bill, Lea; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Rittenbach, Katherine; Healy, Chyloe; Healy, Bonnie; Rosychuk, Rhonda JAbstract Background Worse health outcomes are consistently reported for First Nations people in Canada. Social, political and economic inequities as well as inequities in health care are major contributing factors to these health disparities. Emergency care is an important health services resource for First Nations people. First Nations partners, academic researchers, and health authority staff are collaborating to examine emergency care visit characteristics for First Nations and non-First Nations people in the province of Alberta. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study examining all Alberta emergency care visits from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017 by linking administrative data. Patient demographics and emergency care visit characteristics for status First Nations persons in Alberta, and non-First Nations persons, are reported. Frequencies and percentages (%) describe patients and visits by categorical variables (e.g., Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale). Means, medians, standard deviations and interquartile ranges describe continuous variables (e.g., age). Results The dataset contains 11,686,288 emergency care visits by 3,024,491 unique persons. First Nations people make up 4% of the provincial population and 9.4% of provincial emergency visits. The population rate of emergency visits is nearly 3 times higher for First Nations persons than non-First Nations persons. First Nations women utilize emergency care more than non-First Nations women (54.2% of First Nations visits are by women compared to 50.9% of non-First Nations visits). More First Nations visits end in leaving without completing treatment (6.7% v. 3.6%). Conclusions Further research is needed on the impact of First Nations identity on emergency care drivers and outcomes, and on emergency care for First Nations women.
- ItemOpen AccessFrequent users of emergency departments and patient flow in Alberta and Ontario, Canada: an administrative data study(2020-10-12) Chen, Anqi; Fielding, Scott; Hu, X. J; McLane, Patrick; McRae, Andrew; Ospina, Maria; Rosychuk, Rhonda JAbstract Background This paper describes and compares patient flow characteristics of adult high system users (HSUs) and control groups in Alberta and Ontario emergency departments (EDs), Canada. Methods Annual cohorts of HSUs were created by identifying patients who made up the top 10% of ED users (by count of ED presentations) in the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System during 2011–2016. Random samples of patients not in the HSU groups were selected as controls. Presentation (e.g., acuity) and ED times (e.g., time to physician initial assessment [PIA], length of stay) data were extracted and described. The length of stay for 2015/2016 data was decomposed into stages and Cox models compared time between stages. Results There were 20,343,230 and 18,222,969 ED presentations made by 7,032,655 and 1,923,462 individuals in the control and HSU groups, respectively. The Ontario groups had higher acuity than the Alberta groups: about 20% in the Ontario groups were from the emergent level whereas Alberta had 11–15%. Time to PIA was similar across provinces and groups (medians of 60 min to 67 min). Lengths of stay were longest for Ontario HSUs (median = 3 h) and shortest for Alberta HSUs (median = 2.2 h). HSUs had shorter times to PIA (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02,1.03), longer times from PIA to decision (HR = 0.84; 95%CI 0.84,0.84), and longer times from decision to leaving the ED (HR = 0.91; 95%CI 0.91,0.91). Conclusions Ontario HSUs had higher acuity and longer ED lengths of stay than the other groups. In both provinces, HSU had shorter times to PIA and longer times after assessment.
- ItemOpen AccessImpacts of racism on First Nations patients' emergency care: results of a thematic analysis of healthcare provider interviews in Alberta, Canada(2022-06-21) McLane, Patrick; Mackey, Leslee; Holroyd, Brian R.; Fitzpatrick, Kayla; Healy, Chyloe; Rittenbach, Katherine; Plume, Tessy B.; Bill, Lea; Bird, Anne; Healy, Bonnie; Janvier, Kristopher; Louis, Eunice; Barnabe, CherylAbstract Background First Nations people experience racism in society and in the healthcare system. This study aimed to document emergency care providers’ perspectives on care of First Nations patients. First Nations research partner organizations co-led all aspects of the research. Methods Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with Alberta emergency department (ED) physicians and nurses between November 2019 and March 2020. Results ED providers reported that First Nations patients are exposed to disrespect through tone and body language, experience overt racism, and may be neglected or not taken seriously. They described impacts of racist stereotypes on patient care, and strategies they took as individuals to address patient barriers to care. Recognized barriers to care included communication, resources, access to primary care and the ED environment itself. Conclusions Results may inform the content of anti-racist and anti-colonial pedagogy that is contextually tailored to ED providers, and inform wider systems efforts to counter racism against First Nations members and settler colonialism within healthcare.
- ItemOpen AccessImproving care for residents in long term care facilities experiencing an acute change in health status(2020-11-25) Munene, Abraham; Lang, Eddy; Ewa, Vivian; Hair, Heather; Cummings, Greta; McLane, Patrick; Spackman, Eldon; Faris, Peter; Zuzic, Nancy; Quail, Patrick B; George, Marian; Heinemeyer, Anne; Grigat, Daniel; McMillen, Mark; Reid, Shawna; Holroyd-Leduc, JaynaAbstract Background Long term care (LTC) facilities provide health services and assist residents with daily care. At times residents may require transfer to emergency departments (ED), depending on the severity of their change in health status, their goals of care, and the ability of the facility to care for medically unstable residents. However, many transfers from LTC to ED are unnecessary, and expose residents to discontinuity in care and iatrogenic harms. This knowledge translation project aims to implement a standardized LTC-ED care and referral pathway for LTC facilities seeking transfer to ED, which optimizes the use of resources both within the LTC facility and surrounding community. Methods/design We will use a quasi-experimental randomized stepped-wedge design in the implementation and evaluation of the pathway within the Calgary zone of Alberta Health Services (AHS), Canada. Specifically, the intervention will be implemented in 38 LTC facilities. The intervention will involve a standardized LTC-ED care and referral pathway, along with targeted INTERACT® tools. The implementation strategies will be adapted to the local context of each facility and to address potential implementation barriers identified through a staff completed barriers assessment tool. The evaluation will use a mixed-methods approach. The primary outcome will be any change in the rate of transfers to ED from LTC facilities adjusted by resident-days. Secondary outcomes will include a post-implementation qualitative assessment of the pathway. Comparative cost-analysis will be undertaken from the perspective of publicly funded health care. Discussion This study will integrate current resources in the LTC-ED pathway in a manner that will better coordinate and optimize the care for LTC residents experiencing an acute change in health status.
- ItemOpen AccessOpioid use disorder treatment disruptions during the early COVID-19 pandemic and other emergent disasters: a scoping review addressing dual public health emergencies(2021-07-28) Henderson, Rita; McInnes, Ashley; Mackey, Leslee; Bruised Head, Myles; Crowshoe, Lindsay; Hann, Jessica; Hayward, Jake; Holroyd, Brian R.; Lang, Eddy; Larson, Bonnie; Leonard, Ashley J.; Persaud, Steven; Raghavji, Khalil; Sarin, Chris; Virani, Hakique; Wadsworth, Iskotoahka W.; Whitman, Stacey; McLane, PatrickAbstract Background During public health emergencies, people with opioid use disorder (PWOUD) may be particularly impacted. Emergent disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic disrupt already-strained harm reduction efforts and treatment availability. This study aims to answer three research questions. How do public health emergencies impact PWOUD? How can health systems respond to novel public health emergencies to serve PWOUD? How can the results of this scoping review be contextualized to the province of Alberta to inform local stakeholder responses to the pandemic? Methods We conducted a scoping review using the 6-stage Arksey and O’Malley framework to analyse early-pandemic and pre-pandemic disaster literature. The results of the scoping review were contextualized to the local pandemic response, through a Nominal Group Technique (NGT) process with frontline providers and stakeholders in Alberta, Canada. Results Sixty one scientific journal articles and 72 grey literature resources were included after full-text screening. Forty sources pertained to early COVID-19 responses, and 21 focused on OUD treatment during other disasters. PWOUD may be more impacted than the general population by common COVID-19 stressors including loss of income, isolation, lack of rewarding activities, housing instability, as well as fear and anxiety. They may also face unique challenges including threats to drug supplies, stigma, difficulty accessing clean substance use supplies, and closure of substance use treatment centres. All of these impacts put PWOUD at risk of negative outcomes including fatal overdose. Two NGT groups were held. One group (n = 7) represented voices from urban services, and the other (n = 4) Indigenous contexts. Stakeholders suggested that simultaneous attention to multiple crises, with adequate resources to allow attention to both social and health systems issues, can prepare a system to serve PWOUD during disasters. Conclusion This scoping review and NGT study uncovers how disasters impact PWOUD and offers suggestions for better serving PWOUD.
- ItemOpen AccessTransitions in health care settings for frequent and infrequent users of emergency departments: a population-based retrospective cohort study(2023-11-14) Rosychuk, Rhonda J.; Chen, Anqi A.; Ospina, Maria B.; McRae, Andrew D.; Hu, X. Joan; McLane, PatrickAbstract Background Efforts to reduce emergency department (ED) volumes often target frequent users. We examined transitions in care across ED, hospital, and community settings, and in-hospital death, for high system users (HSUs) compared to controls. Methods Population-based databases provided ED visits and hospitalizations in Alberta and Ontario, Canada. The retrospective cohort included the top 10% of all the ED users during 2015/2016 (termed HSUs) and a random sample of controls (4 per each HSU) from the bottom 90% per province. Rates of transitions among ED, hospitalization, community settings, and in-hospital mortality were adjusted for sociodemographic and ED variables in a multistate statistical model. Results There were 2,684,924 patients and 579,230 (21.6%) were HSUs. Patient characteristics associated with shorter community to ED transition times for HSUs included Alberta residence (ratio of hazard ratio [RHR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11,1.12), living in areas in the lower income quintile (RHR = 1.06, 95%CI 1.06,1.06), and Ontario residents without a primary health care provider (RHR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.13,1.14). Once at the ED, characteristics associated with shorter ED to hospital transition times for HSUs included higher acuity (e.g., RHR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.61, 1.81 for emergent), and for many diagnoses including chest pain (RHR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.65,1.76) and gastrointestinal (RHR = 1.66, 95%CI 1.62,1.71). Once admitted to hospital, HSUs did not necessarily have longer stays except for conditions such as chest pain (RHR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.86, 0.95). HSUs had shorter times to death in the ED if they presented for cancer (RHR = 2.51), congestive heart failure (RHR = 1.93), myocardial infarction (RHR = 1.53), and stroke (RHR = 1.84), and shorter times to death in-hospital if they presented with cancer (RHR = 1.29). Conclusions Differences between HSUs and controls in predictors of transitions among care settings were identified. Co-morbidities and limitations in access to primary care are associated with more rapid transitions from community to ED and hospital among HSUs. Interventions targeting these challenges may better serve patients across health systems.. Trial registration Not applicable.