The drug fluoxetine has been found to have protective properties when administered following brain injury. However, its potential to promote behavioural recovery and the mechanisms by which it might do so require further characterization. To this end, the effects of four weeks of post-injury fluoxetine treatment were examined in mice, using medial frontal cortex (MFC) aspiration lesions as a model of cortical injury. A battery of behavioural tests dependent on MFC function was conducted. MFC lesions reduced locomotion in several tests, decreased anxiety-like behaviour, and impaired contextual association memory. Fluoxetine treatment did not alter the observed hypolocomotion or anxiolysis, but it may have reduced the cognitive impairment. In addition, fluoxetine treatment increased the social dominance of the mice with MFC lesions. These benefits of fluoxetine treatment did not appear to depend on the increased survival of cells born one week after injury or on the induction of hypothermia.