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dc.contributor.advisorKurz, Ebba
dc.contributor.authorBau, Jason
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-23T19:57:39Z
dc.date.issued2014-06-23
dc.date.submitted2014en
dc.identifier.citationBau, J. (2014). Characterization of Salicylates as Novel Catalytic Inhibitors of Human DNA Topoisomerase II Alpha (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/25289en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11023/1580
dc.description.abstractTopoisomerase II (topo II) is a ubiquitous enzyme required for the maintenance of DNA topology. Due to its essential nature, many pharmaceuticals have been found to or developed to target the enzyme for both laboratory and clinical uses. Topo II poisons, such as doxorubicin and etoposide, are commonly used in cancer chemotherapy regimens and are cytotoxic due to their ability to covalently trap topo II on cleaved DNA, leading to the accumulation of DNA double-stranded breaks. In contrast, compounds that inhibit topo II catalytic activity without generating DNA double-stranded breaks are classified as catalytic inhibitors and impair enzyme function at a number of stages in the catalytic cycle, including DNA binding, DNA cleavage, ATP hydrolysis, and enzyme dissociation. Some catalytic inhibitors have been found to counter the DNA damaging effects of topo II poisons. This thesis describes work identifying salicylate as a novel catalytic inhibitor of topo II. It demonstrates that pretreatment of cells with salicylate, prior to treatment with topo II poisons, attenuates poison-induced DNA damage signaling mediated by the ATM protein kinase. This is associated with a concomitant loss of poison-induced DNA double- stranded breaks and consequently decreased cytotoxicity following treatment with topo II poisons. This work also demonstrates that salicylate does not block topo II-DNA binding, or trap the enzyme as a closed clamp on DNA. Rather, salicylate blocks DNA cleavage and enzyme-mediated ATP hydrolysis is impaired in a non-competitive manner. Furthermore, salicylate-mediated inhibition of topo II catalytic activity is selective for the alpha isoform of topo II. In investigating the structural determinants modulating potency of topo II inhibition, many compounds with structural similarities to salicylate, including the salicylate-based pharmaceuticals sulfasalazine and diflunisal, were found to also act as catalytic inhibitors of topo II. It was determined that potency is determined by modifications at the 2’-position that are electronegative and capable of donating a hydrogen bond, but that these effects are further influenced by substitutions at the 5’-position. Considered together, the data presented in this thesis establish a new role for a long-established drug.en_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.
dc.subjectBiology--Molecular
dc.subjectMedicine and Surgery
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.subject.classificationtopoisomerase IIen_US
dc.subject.classificationcatalytic inhibitoren_US
dc.subject.classificationsalicylateen_US
dc.subject.classificationdoxorubicinen_US
dc.subject.classificationDNA damageen_US
dc.subject.classificationDNA cleavageen_US
dc.titleCharacterization of Salicylates as Novel Catalytic Inhibitors of Human DNA Topoisomerase II Alpha
dc.typedoctoral thesis
dc.publisher.facultyGraduate Studies
dc.description.embargotermsindefiniteen_US
dc.date.embargolift10000-01-01
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/25289
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.namePhD
thesis.degree.disciplineMedical Science
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgary
atmire.migration.oldid2240
dc.publisher.placeCalgaryen
ucalgary.item.requestcopytrue


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