Quantum simulation, which is generically the task to employ quantum computers to simulate quantum physical models, has been one of the most significant motivations of quantum computing. Quantum dynamics, unitary or nonunitary Markovian dynamics driven by local interactions, has been proved to be efficiently simulatable on quantum computers. Extending the underlying models from unitary to nonunitary evolution, and from continuous-time to discrete-time evolution is essential not only for quantum simulation of more general processes, e.g., dissipative processes with evident non-Markovian effects, but also for developing alternative quantum computing models and algorithms. In this thesis, we explore quantum simulation problems mainly from the following three themes. First, we extend quantum simulation framework of Hamiltonian-driven evolution to quantum simulation of quantum channels, combined with the scheme of algorithmic simulation that accepts a promised simulation accuracy, hence algorithmic quantum channel simulation. Our simulation scheme contains a classical preprocessing part, i.e. a classical algorithm for quantum-circuit design, and a quantum part that is the execution of a quantum circuit for the quantum channel simulator. Second, we employ simulation algorithms for arbitrary quantum channels beyond the dilation method. We explore channel decomposition in terms of convex combination of smaller channels, known as generalized extreme channels, which is known as a nontrivial open problem. To attack this problem, we develop an optimization algorithm for approximate decomposition into a convex sum of generalized extreme channels. We provide an ansatz that proves to be able to yield arbitrary generalized extreme channels and allows a precise quantum circuit description. Furthermore, our numerical simulation has demonstrated the validity of our optimization algorithm for low-dimensional quantum channels.
Third, by considering quantum simulation problems beyond the rough distinction between digital and analog simulations, and beyond the quantum-state generation problem, we define uniform, strong, and weak quantum simulations from the point view of operator topology. Besides strong simulation of quantum channels, we define a general weak quantum simulation problem, which simulates observable effects instead of the effects on state generation. Also we study the channel simulation problem in the quantum query model, and provide the query complexity by employing uniform quantum simulation method.