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dc.contributor.advisorBoyd, Steven Kyle
dc.contributor.authorNishiyama, Kyle Kenji Stephen
dc.date.accessioned2012-10-30T21:55:40Z
dc.date.available2012-11-13T08:01:44Z
dc.date.issued2012-10-30
dc.date.submitted2012en
dc.identifier.citationNishiyama, K. K. (2012). In Vivo Assessment of Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/26668en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11023/313
dc.description.abstractOsteoporosis is a disease characterized by loss of bone mass and structural deterioration leading to increased risk of fracture. Currently, osteoporosis is assessed by areal bone mineral density; however, this does not provide structural information, which is a key determinant of bone strength. Recent advances allow for the assessment of bone structure in vivo using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT). The overall objective of this thesis was to improve the assessment of bone structure and strength using three-dimensional imaging technologies. First, measurements of cortical porosity from HR-pQCT were validated against micro-CT (R2 = 0.80) and applied to a population-based sample (N = 280, Ages: 18-99 yrs.) of healthy, osteopenic, and osteoporotic, pre- and postmenopausal women. Cortical porosity was higher in postmenopausal women and those with disease. Measurements of cortical porosity were also applied to another group with high fracture incidence: children and adolescents (N = 398, Ages: 9-22 yrs.). Boys were found to have higher porosity than girls, and those at earlier pubertal stages had higher porosity than those post-pubertal. Bone quality measurements were also combined with finite element estimates of bone strength to determine if the measurements could distinguish women with fracture from fracture-free controls. High accuracy was achieved using both HR-pQCT scans of peripheral sites (83.3%) and QCT scans of the proximal femur (84.3%) when classifying the groups using support vector machines. Together, these results provide insight into the differences in bone microstructure and strength with age and disease. In addition, this work demonstrates the ability of novel 3D technologies and methods to better discriminate individuals with and without fracture.en_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.
dc.subjectMedicine and Surgery
dc.subjectRadiology
dc.subjectEngineering--Biomedical
dc.subject.classificationmedical imagingen_US
dc.subject.classificationosteoporosisen_US
dc.subject.classificationbone mechanicsen_US
dc.titleIn Vivo Assessment of Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength
dc.typedoctoral thesis
dc.publisher.facultyGraduate Studies
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/26668
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.namePhD
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineering
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgary
atmire.migration.oldid439
dc.publisher.placeCalgaryen


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