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dc.contributor.advisorEaton, David W.
dc.contributor.advisorWu, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorSteffen, Rebekka
dc.date.accessioned2013-04-30T18:11:36Z
dc.date.available2014-05-01T07:00:16Z
dc.date.issued2013-04-30
dc.date.submitted2013en
dc.identifier.citationSteffen, R. (2013). The influence of glacial isostatic adjustment on intraplate seismicity in northeastern Canada (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. doi:10.11575/PRISM/28209en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11023/652
dc.description.abstractDue to changes in the Earth’s climate, the Earth has experienced colder periods, which generated the growth of continental ice sheets at higher latitudes. The build up of an ice sheet induces flexural stresses in the lithosphere and mantle affecting the stability of pre-existing faults. During and after the end of deglaciation, these faults are activated and the flexural stresses are released as earthquakes. The last ice sheet in North America started to melt 20ka ago, and was gone by 6ka. Here, (re-)activated faults were found, which show vertical fault scarps of up to 100m. As moderate seismicity is observed in North America now, it is of major societal and economic importance to investigate the relationship of this activity to the ongoing rebound. The extended seismological network in northeastern Canada gives us the possibility to analyze local seismicity in more detail than previously possible. Thrust-faulting mechanisms are estimated for five moderate earthquakes that occurred in northern Hudson Bay, and the related stress is NW-SE directed. Comparing this stress direction to results from rebound models and the general background stress field with NE-SW directions, a large difference is found, which might be due to a local fault zone disturbing the main stress field. This study presents an improved two-dimensional rebound model including a fault, which is able to move in a stress field consisting of rebound stress, and horizontal and vertical background stresses. The sensitivity of this fault is tested regarding lithospheric and crustal thickness, viscosity structure of upper and lower mantle, ice-sheet thickness and width, and fault parameters including coefficient of friction, depth, angle and location. Fault throws of up to 64m are obtained using a fault of 30° dipping below the ice-sheet centre. Thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere are two of the major parameters affecting the total fault throw. The ice-sheet width has an impact on the activation time. Even steep-angle faults can be activated. Most faults start to move close to the end of deglaciation, and movement stops after one thrusting/reverse earthquake. However, certain conditions may also lead to several fault movements after the end of glaciation.en_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rightsUniversity of Calgary graduate students retain copyright ownership and moral rights for their thesis. You may use this material in any way that is permitted by the Copyright Act or through licensing that has been assigned to the document. For uses that are not allowable under copyright legislation or licensing, you are required to seek permission.
dc.subjectGeodesy
dc.subjectGeology
dc.subjectGeophysics
dc.subject.classificationGlacial Isostatic Adjustmenten_US
dc.subject.classificationSeismicityen_US
dc.subject.classificationCanadaen_US
dc.subject.classificationGeodynamicsen_US
dc.subject.classificationFinite-Element Modellingen_US
dc.titleThe influence of glacial isostatic adjustment on intraplate seismicity in northeastern Canada
dc.typedoctoral thesis
dc.publisher.facultyGraduate Studies
dc.publisher.facultyScience
dc.description.embargoterms12 monthsen_US
dc.publisher.institutionUniversity of Calgaryen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/28209
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy
thesis.degree.namePhD
thesis.degree.disciplineGeoscience
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Calgary
atmire.migration.oldid880
dc.publisher.placeCalgaryen


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