My dissertation examined how encoding strategies, recall, and metamemory shift across two study-test experiences. Differential recall of generate targets and read targets on Test 1 led participants to develop an improved encoding strategy for their more poorly recalled target type, thus eliminating differential recall on Test 2 (Experiment 1-3). However, recall also improved across tests for groups that were not tested on both target types on Test 1 (Experiment 2), and for groups that studied and recalled only one target type (Experiment 1). Participants’ reported strategies (Experiment 1) and metamemory judgments (Experiment 3) were used to elucidate how and when people modify their encoding strategies in an effort to improve future memory performance. Overall, the present study confirmed that people can learn about the effectiveness of a study strategy both during studying and on a test, and revealed that this learning is more ubiquitous and varied than previous research suggested.