How could a Website about nothing, where people post short messages no longer than 140 characters could have become the conduit through which information about ongoing political unrest in a land foreign to most westerners become so important? Iranians were comparatively late as Cyberspace participants. Blogging only started in late 2001. But within a few months, the Iranian output in Cyberspace became voluminous. Iranians of all ages and creeds had found one place where they could express their political, views, discuss their country's rich and extensive literature, study religious texts and communicate with one another often bypassing the Iranian authorities' control of other media. This vibrant online activity was generated by Iranians for Iranians. Even through social networks, Iranians continued to speak to one another and generally not with outsiders. When Twitter became the last conduit, inconveniently forgotten by Iranian authorities in anticipation of the 2009 Iranian presidential election, many Iranians went to Twitter to express their dissatisfaction with the electoral results that made incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad the winner. This study argues that the very act of going online and disagreeing with the electoral results by Iranian dissidents was a war of ideas. Wars of ideas are cyber threats that can be studied within cyber security. Cyber threats are based on information systems and information content. Information content is about cyber influence and wars of ideas that can change people's opinions. But before one can understand what cyber threats, influence and attacks are, one needs to understand what cyber security is and how it exists within the field of strategic studies.
Bibliography: p. 140-153