Three evangelical Protestant denominations, the Anglicans, Methodists and Presbyterians established missions in the Canadian West from 1820 to 1870. Their success was marginal, with no missionary achieving the ultimate goal of self-sufficient and predominantly agricultural communities. Their existence was never more than fragile. Agriculture was retarded, only in a few cases spontaneous, and always ancillary to hunting and "tripping".
Canadian Church Historical Society Journal Vol. XIV, September 1972, pp. 55-67.