Tanzania is among the poorest countries of the world with approximately one third of its population living below the poverty line of less than $1 a day. The country has been heavily reliant on foreign aid assistance, with close to 40 percent of its national budget and up to 70 percent of its education development budget dependent on donor assistance. Moreover, according to OECD calculations, Tanzania is the third largest recipient country of development aid behind Iraq and Afghanistan, having received $2.811 billion in donations. In this project, I reviewed Canadian bilateral assistance to Tanzania during the period of basic education reform in Tanzania, from 2002 to 2011. I reviewed Canada's policy documents on its support for basic education, a breakdown of Canadian aid funds disbursed to support basic education in Tanzania as reported in the Creditor Reporting System of the OECD, as well as
reports of Tanzania's PEDP implementation. I argue that Canada's support for basic education in Tanzania may be ineffective because there is no Canadian policy document to guide the country's engagement in ensuring improvement of learning outcomes (quality education); Canada allocates smaller amounts in improving the education policy and administration management in Tanzania than other education components; Canada has shifting funding priorities and overemphasizes funding its national NGOs and CSOs. Also, the efficacy of Canadian aid is constrained by Tanzania's overreliance on donors, institutional gaps facing the country's education ministry, inflation, and lack of legal responsibility and accountability.