Comparative Analysis of Pressure Mapping Methods in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: Four-Dimensional Blood Flow Hemodynamics Assessment and Development of a Novel Pressure Mapping Tool

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most prevalent cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) that alters normal blood flow through the heart and accounts for 10% of all CHD. Pulmonary stenosis and regurgitation are common in adults who have undergone TOF repair (rTOF) and can impact the load on the right ventricle, blood flow pressure, and pulmonary hemodynamics. Pressure mapping, obtained through 4D-flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI), has been applied to identify abnormal heart hemodynamics in CHD. Hence, the aim of this research was to compare pressure drop and relative pressures between patients with repaired TOF (rTOF) and healthy volunteers. An in vitro validation was performed, followed by an in vivo validation. We hypothesized that pressure drop is a more stable pressure mapping method than relative pressures to detect altered hemodynamics. A total of 36 subjects, 18 rTOF patients and 18 controls underwent cardiac MRI scans and 4D-flow MRI. Pressure drops and relative pressures in the MPA were higher in rTOF patients compared to the controls (p < 0.05). Following the in vitro validation, pressure drops proved to be a more stable pressure mapping method than relative pressures, as the flow loses its laminarity and becomes more turbulent. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that flow hemodynamics in rTOF can exhibit altered pressure maps. Pressure mapping can help provide further insight into rTOF patients’ hemodynamics to improve patient care and clinical decisions.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Pressure Mapping, Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot, Heart Hemodynamics, 4D Flow MRI
Ihsan Ali, S. (2023). Comparative analysis of pressure mapping methods in repaired tetralogy of fallot: four-dimensional blood flow hemodynamics assessment and development of a novel pressure mapping tool (Master's/Doctoral thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada). Retrieved from