Behavioural animation of monarch butterflies

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An example of the behavioural animation of Monarch butterflies is presented. An attempt is made to demonstrate that realistic Monarch motion can be reproduced using a structurally valid behavioural model, i.e. a model based on the steering behaviour of real Monarchs. A three-dimensional simulation of Monarch flight is used, in which the role of wing-flapping in locomotion is prioritized. The position, orientation, and wing articulation of a number of Monarchs are advanced one step at a time to recreate the process of flight and thereby produce the animation. Changes in position are physically-based, i.e. the mathematics are based on a "particle" representation for each of the simulated Monarchs. The simulation terrain includes gravity, and the behavioural algorithms are physically grounded, meaning that they function in terms of literal features of Monarch flight. Realistic and robust behaviour is obtained with a compact set of routines.
Bibliography: p. 134-137
Dorosh, S. C. (2004). Behavioural animation of monarch butterflies (Master's thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada). Retrieved from doi:10.11575/PRISM/11433