Browsing by Author "Caird, Jeff"
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- ItemOpen AccessAn Evaluation of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Meters(2014-05-02) Jones, Jessica; Caird, JeffObjective: To examine the overall usability of current, commercially available self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) meters in order to highlight how the design affects the performance of elderly adults. Methods: Sixteen younger participants (18-27) and twenty nine elderly participants (65-85) completed two SMBG meter tasks: 1) set date/time and 2) control solution test, using two meters: 1) the Accu-Chek Compact Plus and 2) the One Touch Ultra 2. Results: Elderly adults struggled to complete the SMBG meter tasks, especially when compared to their younger counterparts. Overall, younger participants were more successful in performing the SMBG meter tasks, were faster and committed fewer errors. All participants completed the set date/time task faster using the One Touch Ultra 2 meter. Elderly participants performed the control solution task faster using the Accu-Chek Compact Plus. Future SMBG meters should be designed with more insight into the needs and specific abilities of the elderly population.
- ItemOpen AccessAn experimental study on the impact of clinical interruptions on simulated trainee performances of central venous catheterization(2017-02-14) Jones, Jessica; Wilkins, Matthew; Caird, Jeff; Kaba, Alyshah; Cheng, Adam; Ma, Irene W YAbstract Background Interruptions are common in the healthcare setting. This experimental study compares the effects of interruptions on simulated performances of central venous catheterization during a highly versus minimally complex portion of the task. Methods Twenty-six residents were assigned to interruptions during tasks that are (1) highly complex: establishing ultrasound-guided venous access (experimental group, n = 15) or (2) minimally complex: skin cleansing (control group, n = 11). Primary outcomes were (a) performance scores at three time points measured with a validated checklist, (b) time spent on the respective tasks, and (c) number of attempts to establish venous access. Results Repeated measure analyses of variances of performance scores over time indicated no main effect of time or group. The interaction between time and group was significant: F (2, 44) = 4.28, p = 0.02, and partial eta2 = 0.16, indicating a large effect size. The experimental group scores decreased steadily over time, while the control group scores increased with time. The experimental group required longer to access the vein (148 s; interquartile range (IQR) 60 to 361 vs. 44 s; IQR 27 to 133 s; p = 0.034). Median number of attempts to establish venous access was higher in the experimental group (2, IQR 1–7 vs. 1, IQR 1–2; p = 0.03). Conclusions Interruptions during a highly complex task resulted in a consistent decrement in performance scores, longer time required to perform the task, and a higher number of venous access attempts than interruptions during a minimally complex tasks. We recommend avoiding interrupting trainees performing bedside procedures.
- ItemOpen AccessBelieving What You See: How Beliefs Affect Human-Autonomy Teaming(2022-12-23) Henke, Jonn; O'Neill, Thomas; McNeese, Nathan; Caird, Jeff; Ellard, John; Yanushkevich, SvetlanaA quasi-experiment was performed to determine the influence that pre-existing beliefs and attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence (AI) may have on several key mechanisms linked to performance and outcomes in Human-Autonomy Teams (HATs). Participants were measured on their general attitudes towards AI, and then placed into conditions based on their attitudes. They then completed an experiment involving teamwork tasks on teams consisting of two participants and one researcher confederate posing as an AI teammate, pilot testing a new research design using a multi-player videogame as the study platform. Individuals were however shown to change their individual attitudes after interaction in the HAT, and participants broadly reported that they worked together with both their human and AI teammates in order to achieve goals, and viewed their AI teammates positively. However, this study found that individual attitudes of team members did not appear to significantly influence mechanisms nor outcomes in teams, as the measured variables in this study (Team Cognition, Engagement, and Perceived Team Performance) did not vary significantly between conditions. Besides a marginal relationship between positive attitudes towards AI and Perceived Team Performance, individual attitudes were not found to relate to predicted outcomes. The results suggests that attitudes towards AI alone may not be appropriate to use as a screening metric for considering membership of individuals in HATs, as individuals appear to readily adjust their perceptions towards AI teammates after interacting with them. Additionally, individually measured attitudes did not appear to aggregate into an appropriate group level variable in this study; development of a group level measure of attitudes towards AI team members could be a prudent addition for future HAT research.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Design and Development, Usability Evaluation and Pilot Testing of a Patient Decision Aid for Individuals with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Considering Stroke Prevention Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Management(2021-05-25) Baers, Justin; Caird, Jeff; Wilton, Steve; Davies, Jan; Hazlewood, GlenBackground: Nonvalvular chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of stroke and accounts for 15-20% of strokes suffered annually by Canadians. This stroke risk can be reduced by 65% with stroke prevention therapies. However, due to the numerous therapeutic options available to patients for stroke prevention therapy in AF management, deciding which therapy is best for them is difficult and complex. The purpose of this program of research was to design, develop and evaluate an interactive, web-based patient decision aid to assist individuals newly diagnosed with AF make informed decisions, in-line with their personal preferences, about stroke prevention therapies. Methods: The approach of the dissertation was systematic, starting with a systematic review and including iterative prototype development and testing, user evaluations and the inclusion of patient and healthcare provider stakeholders. Results: This approach contends with the complexity of developing successful patient decision aids and the necessity for multiple studies and methods. The findings from the studies culminated in a polished decision aid that is consistent with the International Patient Decision Aids Standards’ most recent criteria, facilitates shared decision making between patients and their healthcare providers and is ready for future clinical study. Factors integral to the decision aid’s successful development included: (1) the user-centred design process; (2) its web app format and responsive mobile-first design; (3) personalization of evidence-based risk information for a patient’s self-reported risk factors; (4) the multi-stage formative evaluation that provided recommendations for design improvement and resulted in over 1,000 design changes; and (5) approval from AF and heart rhythm experts. Conclusion: This dissertation describes the end-to-end development and evaluation of an interactive web-based patient decision aid for individuals who are considering stroke prevention therapy for AF. Collectively, the multiple studies in this dissertation establish a foundation for exploring shared decision making between patients and their healthcare providers, contribute significantly to the domain of patient decision aids and set a new standard for future decision aid development. This new standard can be applied to all fields of medicine where patients are able to share in any decision-making necessary for their care.
- ItemOpen AccessDo In-Vehicle Systems Utilizing Voice-Recognition Technology Impact Driving Performance? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis(2016) Simmons, Sarah; Caird, Jeff; O'Neill, Tom; Protzner, Andrea; Steel, PiersNewer model vehicles are often equipped with or capable of supporting hands-free systems that use voice-recognition technology. Although voice-recognition technology is viewed favourably among the public, it is not clear whether these systems should be considered safe alternatives to traditional handheld phones and visual-manual integrated systems. To answer this question, an exhaustive search was conducted to capture all experimental studies involving secondary tasks with voice-recognition systems where driving performance was measured. Meta-analyses for the performance measures of detection, reaction time, lateral control and longitudinal control were conducted with 43 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Some driving performance benefits were observed relative to visual-manual systems, but there were also considerable impairments relative to baseline driving. The results of the study indicate that voice-recognition systems, despite minimizing eyes-off-road time, have a distraction cost. Implications for driver education, voice-recognition system design and future research are also discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessThe effect of a ski-snowboard injury prevention video on safety knowledge and behaviours in school programs(2018-01-11) Mitra, Tatum; Hagel, Brent; Emery, Carolyn; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Caird, Jeff; Russell, KellyPurpose: To implement and evaluate the effects of a skiing and snowboarding injury prevention video on child and adolescent safety knowledge and behaviours. Study Design: Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Background: Skiing and snowboarding are two popular winter activities; however, these sports can lead to injury. Previous studies have found that injuries in snow sports can be prevented and may be associated with poor decisions, actions and human error. Currently, there is no comprehensive injury prevention program found in skiing and snowboarding. Methods: The participants were students in grades 2 through 9 who were a part of the ski and snowboard school programs at a ski area in Southern Alberta. The participants were randomized into either the control or intervention group, based on the school they attended. The control group followed the current standard protocol for the ski and snowboard school programs, including an orientation video, while the intervention group received a video that focuses on safety knowledge and injury prevention. The outcomes were measured through the use of pre- and post-tests (safety knowledge uptake) and the observations of risky behaviours on the ski hill. Results: There was a significant increase in safety knowledge scores for those in the intervention group immediately following exposure to the video intervention (mean change: +1.91 points/15 points) compared with the control group after exposure to the control video (mean change: +0.10 points/15 points). There were 23.31 risky behaviours/100 runs (95% CI: 16.75-29.87) for those in the control group, and 22.95 risky behaviours/100 runs (95% CI: 17.63-28.26) for those in the intervention group. Conclusion: This project demonstrates that a skiing and snowboarding injury prevention video can improve knowledge scores within a school-aged population. The video intervention, however, was not associated with the overall incidence of risky behaviours in this population. Future injury prevention research should investigate how to better translate knowledge to induce behavioural changes and limit risky behaviours in child and adolescent skiers and snowboarders.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of Regular and Irregular Video Game Experience on High-Risk Driving Behaviour(2013-10-18) Pearson, Aimée; Caird, JeffThis thesis investigates how video game experience influences high-risk driving behaviour in a in a driving simulator. Participants completed a number of personality questionnaires (IPIP-R sub-scale for risk-taking, sensation seeking scale and driver confidence questionnaire) and experienced a number of driving events in the University of Calgary Driving Simulator (UCDS). Driving behaviour was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA and a step-wise logistic regression to determine whether video game experience was related or could predict driving behaviour.
- ItemOpen AccessAn experimental study on the impact of clinical interruptions on simulated trainee performances of central venous catheterization(BioMed Central, 2017-02) Jones, Jessica; Wilkins, Matthew; Caird, Jeff; Kaba, Alyshah; Cheng, Adam; Ma, IreneBackground: Interruptions are common in the healthcare setting. This experimental study compares the effects of interruptions on simulated performances of central venous catheterization during a highly versus minimally complex portion of the task. Methods: Twenty-six residents were assigned to interruptions during tasks that are (1) highly complex: establishing ultrasound-guided venous access (experimental group, n = 15) or (2) minimally complex: skin cleansing (control group, n = 11). Primary outcomes were (a) performance scores at three time points measured with a validated checklist, (b) time spent on the respective tasks, and (c) number of attempts to establish venous access. Results: Repeated measure analyses of variances of performance scores over time indicated no main effect of time or group. The interaction between time and group was significant: F (2, 44) = 4.28, p = 0.02, and partial eta2 = 0.16, indicating a large effect size. The experimental group scores decreased steadily over time, while the control group scores increased with time. The experimental group required longer to access the vein (148 s; interquartile range (IQR) 60 to 361 vs. 44 s; IQR 27 to 133 s; p = 0.034). Median number of attempts to establish venous access was higher in the experimental group (2, IQR 1–7 vs. 1, IQR 1–2; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Interruptions during a highly complex task resulted in a consistent decrement in performance scores, longer time required to perform the task, and a higher number of venous access attempts than interruptions during a minimally complex tasks. We recommend avoiding interrupting trainees performing bedside procedures.
- ItemEmbargoImproving the Adoption of Transitions in Care Technology Between Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments: A Scoping Review(0024-01-08) Sterzer, Frances Ruth; Caird, Jeff; Bourdage, Joshua; Ellard, John; Blanchard, IanAbstract Background: Miscommunication during emergency care transitions between emergency medical services and emergency department personnel can lead to serious medical errors and adverse patient events. Although mobile technology has the potential to help, its global adoption within health systems remains limited. Objectives: This thesis sought to create an easily accessible repository of mobile software application features, motivations for use, and barriers that hinder the adoption of this technology. The primary goal was to support research, design, and development and improve the adoption of this critical technology. Design: The scoping review methodology was employed to explore the literature broadly. Searches were conducted in eight academic databases, including Academic Search Complete, APA PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additionally, eight preprint databases were searched, along with Google Play Apps, Apple’s App Store, and Google, to identify available documents published between 2012-2023. This strategy provided access to the most current information on emerging technology, especially those adapted for pandemic management. Author, reference, and app searches were conducted to trace the evolution and development of products. Results: The document identification process was outlined using an adapted PRISMA flow chart, resulting in the inclusion of 38 academic and non-academic documents. The review revealed twelve distinct transitions in care software applications, primarily from the U.S. (61.8%), Australia (11.8%), Japan (11.8%), Brazil (8.8%), China (2.9%), and Saudi Arabia (2.9%). Pulsara, e-Bridge, Twiage, Join, and CrashHelp were the most prominently investigated applications. The review also highlighted diverse research approaches, stakeholders' perspectives, and insights into design features, motivations, and adoption barriers. Conclusions: This research introduces a novel approach to promoting transition in care software application adoption. It has resulted in an adoption model and a comprehensive strategy encompassing various key aspects. A common theme is the need to establish a robust support system involving stakeholders, along with flexible, region-specific solutions. Collaboration between emergency practitioners is consistently emphasized, underscoring the importance of holistic tools and strategies for success. This work underscores the potential of technology and human collaboration to save lives.
- ItemEmbargoImproving the Adoption of Transitions in Care Technology Between Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments: A Scoping Review Protocol(2022-05-12) Sterzer, Frances; Caird, Jeff; Reay, GudrunBackground: Previous research has shown that miscommunication during transitions in care between emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency departments can result in serious medical errors leading to adverse patient health outcomes and even death. Studies show that interactive mobile technology can assist the patient transfer process. Research indicates that various technologies are available, yet uptake by health systems throughout Canada and the world is limited. A conceptual framework for improving the technology adoption of EMS to emergency department (ED) transitions in care (TiC) software will be used to guide the project. Objectives: The aim of this scoping review is to create an expansive collection of useful mobile software application features, motivations for use, and barriers that interfere with EMS communication technology adoption to assist research and design and improve the technology’s adoption over time. Eligibility Criteria: Only information on smartphone software applications will be eligible for inclusion in this project, although all study designs and types of literature will be included. Included apps, articles, or documents must be published after 2008 and in the English language or feasibly translated (e.g., using Google Translate). Sources of Evidence: Seven academic and seven preprint databases will be searched for published and unpublished artifacts providing access to the latest information. Due to the emerging nature of this topic, exploring Google Play Apps, Apple's App Store, and Google will help ensure that the most current information is represented. Utilizing backward and forward author, reference, and app searching will be crucial for identifying evolutions of the technology and developmental trajectories to their present state. Charting Methods: Data charting will include characteristics of the source, along with any relevant results and findings that pertain to the research questions, which will be coded into emerging categories (i.e., themes), creating an accessible and simplified resource supported by a narrative synthesis.
- ItemOpen AccessLight Therapy for Post-Treatment Cancer-Related Fatigue: An Investigation of Impact on Psychological Outcomes and Biological Mechanisms(2016) Johnson, Jillian; Campbell, Tavis; Carlson, Linda; Caird, Jeff; Millet, Guillaume; Palesh, OxanaOBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a one-month light therapy intervention on symptoms of fatigue, psychological outcomes, and diurnal cortisol rhythms in cancer survivors with clinical fatigue. METHODS: Adult cancer survivors who met diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue were eligible and randomized to receive either bright white light (BWL) or an active comparator (dim red light; DRL). Participants used the device for 30 minutes upon waking for 4 weeks. Baseline and post-intervention assessments of fatigue, mood disturbance, depression, sleep quality, and quality of life were obtained. Participants also provided four saliva samples per day over a period of 3 days both before and after the intervention. Linear mixed-model (LMM) analysis with random slopes and intercepts were conducted on the primary outcome of fatigue, and generalized estimating equations were employed to investigate the secondary psychological outcomes. Cortisol slopes, total cortisol output (area under the curve), and cortisol output at four sampling times were examined for time, group, and interaction effects using LMM analyses. RESULTS: Eighty-one participants were randomized to either BWL (n=42) or DRL (n=39). The light therapy intervention was acceptable as evidenced by high adherence rates and low dropout (2.5%). Overall, participants in the BWL condition displayed greater improvements in symptoms of fatigue than those in the DRL condition (d=.30). Both groups showed improvements on symptoms of mood disturbance, depression, sleep quality, and quality of life over time. A subsample of participants (n=77) were included in the cortisol analyses. Cortisol slope and total cortisol output were unchanged after the intervention, but an increase in output was observed in both groups at the post-intervention noon sample, as well as decreased output at the post-intervention 5pm sample in the BWL condition. CONCLUSION: Early morning exposure to bright white light resulted in improvements in symptoms of fatigue in cancer survivors with clinical fatigue. These findings, along with those of previous research of light therapy in cancer patients and survivors, support the use of light therapy for cancer-related symptoms. Furthermore, light therapy has the potential to impact the diurnal release of cortisol, though further research into the associations with symptoms of fatigue are required.
- ItemOpen AccessMeasuring competence in central venous catheterization: a systematic-review(Springer Plus, 2014-01-17) Ma, Irene W.Y.; Sharma, Nishan; Brindle, Mary E.; Caird, Jeff; McLaughlin, Kevin J.