Browsing by Author "Eaton, Sarah"
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- ItemOpen AccessAcademic Integrity in an Age of Educational Transformation (or_ Why Robots Won't Inherit the Earth)(University of Calgary Conference on Postsecondary Learning and Teaching, 2023-04-28) Eaton, SarahJoin us for an interactive session in which you, the participants, will share ideas and effective practices about what works to help students (1) understand what academic integrity is; (2) analyze which aspects of academic integrity need to transform in the age of artificial intelligence, which remain constant, and why; and (3) connect academic integrity to ethical-decision making in daily life beyond the classroom. There is no magic bullet to ensure that students uphold academic integrity and there is no “one size fits all” approach. Instead, in this facilitated session, we share ideas, resources, and tips that can be used in different contexts. You will come away having been inspired by academic and professional peers with concrete ideas to apply in their own teaching practice. Most of all, you may find fears about threats to academic integrity from emerging technologies diminished. By the end of this session engaged participants will: • Understand the connection between academic integrity in the classroom and ethical-decision making in daily life. • Analyze the impact of transformative technologies such as artificial intelligence on teaching, learning, assessment, and academic integrity. • Gain new strategies and ideas to use in teaching and assessment.
- ItemOpen AccessConsidering the Implications and Mechanisms of Scale within Open Education(2022-07) Elias, Tanya; Burwell, Catherine; Alonso Yanez, Gabriela; Eaton, Sarah; Friesen, Sharon; Kanuka, HeatherMy dissertation is the culmination of a five-year critical investigation of the implications of scale within contemporary open education. My qualitative, critical, and tentative study is guided by the question: How do open educators perceive the mechanisms and implications of scale? It uses situational analysis theory-method package and a three-phase research process, including a qualitative online survey, collaborative map annotation, and focus groups. My study presents a multi-dimensional representation of open education’s complicated relationship with scale, both big and small. At a massive scale, open online course providers are increasingly delivering standardized content on data-gathering platforms built to control the learning experience to generate profit that bear no resemblance to these connectivist-inspired MOOCs imagined by open educators just over a decade ago. At the same time, open educators working at a much smaller scale are increasingly turning their attention towards emerging areas, including open educational practices and open policy. Using situational analysis social worlds/arena, relational, and positional mapmaking techniques, this study exposes the silences surrounding these apparently contradictory approaches to open education and elucidates a different approach to scale adopted by many open educators. It further finds that because open educators are often motivated by an intention to improve education, due to co-option, the games of scientific language and overwork, they are at risk of falling into the prescriptive patterns that they seek to transform. My study concludes that mitigating that risk will require open educators to articulate their tacit awareness of the holistic growth and prescriptive production mechanisms of scale and to clearly articulate their scale-related intentions. Moreover, it suggests that open educators seeking to re-pattern prescriptive production within educational systems must learn to embrace unpredictability and uncertainty as a means of minimizing educational disasters.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Study Investigating Pedagogical Value at a Research-Intensive University(2021-07-06) Egizii, Rita; Friesen, Sharon; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Jamniczky, Heather; Lock, Jennifer; Eaton, SarahHigher education institutions are increasingly being challenged with how best to deliver the necessary knowledge and skills required by the contemporary adult learner facing unprecedented global uncertainty and disruption. This exploratory mixed-methods study investigated the perceptions of a purposive sample of university instructors who exhibited innovative approaches to their pedagogical practices. Participants were university instructors teaching in degreed programs within a bounded timeframe (2015-2018) at a U-15 university in western Canada. The primary research question was: What are the differentiating factors in the approaches and philosophies of innovative university instructors that underpin the pedagogical value they deliver? Instrumentation and analysis consisted of a survey and semi-structured interviews. The fourteen findings from this study are: (1) an innovation mindset sets the foundation for teaching effectiveness, (2) innovative teaching methods reinforce collective learning, (3) affinity for and inclusion of innovative thinking is found within a supported community of practice, (4) innovative instructors are changemakers who focus on value creation, (5) intentional architecting supports co-created learning experiences that support value, (6) value can be created through pedagogy, (7) relationship building is a key element of value creation and begins with empathy, (8) facilitation and collaboration is necessary for guiding value creation in the adult learning process, (9) authentic balanced assessment supports the creation of value, (10) embracing student feedback supports the creation of value, (11) collecting value intelligence creates desired reciprocal benefits, (12) effectual means and experience makes a difference, (13) teaching is a qualified profession and a scholarly discipline which needs to evolve, and (14) innovative teaching can be repressed by institutional culture, inequities, restrictions and lack of support. These findings inform: (a) instructional design that supports the creation of pedagogical value; (b) academic enhancement through professional development which contributes to capacity building and (c) policy making related to teaching standards and teaching effectiveness.
- ItemOpen AccessFeatures of Highly Adaptable Senior Leadership Teams(2022-03) Fossey, Richard; Kowch, Eugene; Eaton, Sarah; Sengupta, Pratim; Kawalilak, Colleen; Veletsianos, GeorgeWhen this research was proposed, approved by the Supervisory Committee, and then vetted in the Candidacy Examination, there was no COVID-19 pandemic. After CFREB ethics clearance, the COVID-19 pandemic emerged. So, a study of executive level senior leadership teams of a provincewide healthcare system was not only important and unique, but it also meant researching a system that was in various states of hope, concern, complexity, and chaos—in real time. As exemplified by the COVID-19 pandemic, in today’s dynamic environments, leaders need to be nimble, comfortable with uncertainty, and ready to change (Kowch, 2013b; Pulakos et al., 2000). Indeed, the call for leaders to enable organizations, and people, for adaptability—the “ability to move quickly toward new opportunities” (Birkinshaw & Gibson, 2004, p. 47), to help manage complex competing tensions, and avoid complacency, has hardly been more pressing. Using complexity leadership theory as a framework (Lichtenstein et al., 2006; Uhl-Bien & Arena, 2018; Uhl-Bien & Marion, 2009; Uhl-Bien et al., 2007), this qualitative descriptive multi-case research examined multiple complex features that shaped the adaptive capacity of executive level senior leadership teams within a provincewide healthcare organization. This research used a pilot and successfully tested the research design. Using in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured interviews of twelve executive level senior leaders, thorough document review, and the close monitoring of current events and news stories relevant to healthcare issues, this research investigated how the senior leadership teams enabled or constrained their adaptive capacity (Kowch, 2013a). Findings provide evidence that in context, the senior leadership teams took a path constraining their adaptive capacity (Philip & Sengupta, 2020). Some essentials of systems thinking, and dynamic system action were also found missing in this research indicating opportunities for future similar executive level senior leadership team research. Findings reveal: (a) a lack of informal networks, (b) misalignment between the leaders, and (c) little to no experimentation within the senior leadership teams. These findings answer the research questions and reveal how the senior leadership teams enabled or constrained their adaptability.
- ItemOpen AccessInstructional Design Collaboration: A Professional Learning and Growth Experience(MERLOT, 2013) Brown, Barbara; Eaton, Sarah; Jacobsen, Michele; Roy, Sylvie; Friesen, SharonHigh-quality online courses can result from collaborative instructional design and development approaches that draw upon the diverse and relevant expertise of faculty design teams. In this reflective analysis of design and pedagogical practice, the authors explore a collaborative instructional design partnership among education faculty, including the course instructors, which developed while co-designing an online graduate-level course at a Canadian University. A reflective analysis of the collaborative design process is presented using an adapted, four-fold curriculum design framework. Course instructors discuss their approaches to backward instructional design and describe the digital tools used to support collaboration. Benefits from collaborative course design, including ongoing professional dialogue and peer support, academic development of faculty, and improved course design and delivery, are described. Challenges included increased time investment for instructors and a perception of increased workload during design and implementation of the course. Overall, the collaborative design team determined that the course co-design experience resulted in an enhanced course design with meaningful assessment rubrics, and offered a valuable professional learning and online teaching experience for the design team.
- ItemOpen AccessKaa-waakohtoochik (The ones who are related to each other): An inquiry of Métis understandings with/in/through the city(2022-07-06) Bouvier, Victoria; Field, Jim; Crowshoe, Reg; Hanson, Aubrey; Donald, Dwayne; Eaton, Sarah; Gaudet, Janice CindyStories that reflect people’s historicity, worldview, emotions, enactments, and mobilizations are profoundly important in solidifying and validating people’s identity and self-understandings. Stories can allow people, as individuals and communities, to navigate relationships with themselves and others in healthy and nurturing ways. Understanding oneself, as Métis, in a seemingly new and changing environment – the urban landscape – is particularly important for future generations to be able to know who they are so they can live well and flourish as Métis in urban ecologies. This doctoral dissertation is two-fold; first, the methodology is described and illustrates the facilitation of the inquiry through an oral knowledge system of acquisition and validation. Moreover, the “Third Perspective” is shared as a method utilized to assess stories of the co-researchers. Secondly, the inquiry frames stories of Métis everyday practices with/in/through the urban environment as living experiences that are inherently relational and connected. Emphasis is placed on the everyday practices as these are often overlooked yet are crucial in self-determination. With little current research in this area, this dissertation provides narratives, both individual and collective, that illustrate Métis as dynamic and multifaceted people who engage in multidimensional relationships that (re)affirm our identity and belonging. Métis people face misconceptions of who we are, but through this work those narratives are disrupted, and our truths are presented that tell of our cultural lineages and historicity affirming we are still alive and well even in the city. This small collection of stories strives to contribute to current and future research endeavours that articulate and celebrate Métis brilliance.
- ItemOpen AccessLeadership Capacity of Nonprofit Social Service Organizations in Alberta(2021-12-09) Doan-Nguyen, Mylan; Eaton, Sarah; Groen, Janet; Kawalilak, Colleen; Hewson, Jennifer; Hamm, LyleSociety relies on nonprofit organizations to provide essential services to marginalized populations and advocate for public policy; yet, service providers are constantly being challenged by funding competition, increasing demand for services, and leadership shortage. This qualitative multi-case study provides insights gathered from Alberta nonprofit executive leaders (n = 9) as to how they leverage their own leadership capacities for their social service organizations and also build organizational leadership capacity. Nonprofit leaders from organizations in the western Canadian cities of Calgary and Edmonton were interviewed. Six major themes and three sub-themes emerged. Participants brought a wide range of education and experience to their roles; they invested in themselves through lifelong learning, and they were the best fit for the organization they led. These executive leaders did not subscribe to any specific leadership styles, but made important decisions for their organization based on its vision and mission. Study participants were cognizant of their strengths and believed that emergent leaders should hone their entrepreneurial mindset and strive to be future-focused. Although leadership training is important to develop future leaders, inadequacies do exist in current training models, according to the study participants. Current training does not provide potential candidates the opportunities to build leadership capacities through experiential learning and mentorship, two components that the executive leaders in this study believed to be crucial to the success of future leaders.
- ItemOpen AccessLeadership Development Experiences of Department Chairs at a Canadian University(2021-03-16) Stawnychko, Leda; Winchester, Ian; Marshall, Dru; Eaton, SarahOne of the many important debates in the post-secondary sector is whether scholars are fit to lead universities. Effective leadership is important in all settings but particularly at these institutions because of their size, complexity, and dynamic social, economic, and political contexts. Having a thorough understanding of this context is considered indispensable for leadership success. This qualitative study explores the leadership development experiences of 17 department chairs at one research-intensive university located in Alberta, Canada. Department chairs are key university leaders who are accountable for many education, service, and research activities; they act as crucial links between institutional strategy and its implementation. Their development merits careful attention because entry into these leadership roles requires no prior training or experience, making them the least prepared leadership group at universities. The study findings revealed that leadership networks play a central role in the development of these leaders. These networks serve as valuable instruments that help them to enter and understand their role, develop new skills, and practise self-reflection. Furthermore, these networks facilitate the transformation of these scholars from researchers and teachers to academic leaders. Prior to this study, the influence of leadership networks on the development of academic chairs was largely unknown and had been only marginally described in the literature.
- ItemOpen AccessOnline Bachelor of Education Programs Offered in Colleges and Universities Throughout Canada, the United States, and Australia(2015-08) Becker, Sandra; Gereluk, Dianne; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, SarahBeginning in Fall 2015, the University of Calgary will be offering a blended Bachelor of Education program to address issues of equity and access for rural and remote students who wish to become teachers, yet remain in their home communities. To this end, a research team from the university is exploring best practices in online and blended education. Part of the search includes determining online Bachelor of Education programs that exist currently. A review of universities in Canada, the U. S., and Australia determined that at this time, there are few offering fully online or blended Bachelor of Education programs, suggesting opportunities exist for programs to be created to address the needs of rural and remote students.
- ItemOpen AccessPerceptions of Faculty With Respect to Change at a Western Canadian College: An Exploratory Study(2021-05-15) Couture, Laurent Joseph Gerard; Winchester, W. Ian; Eaton, Sarah; Kawalilak, Colleen; Donlevy, JamesPublicly funded postsecondary education institutions are experiencing significant forces of change which have been acerbated by the global pandemic. The results of this project indicate that leaders of those institutions in North America should engage their faculty to help their respective colleges or universities survive, and perhaps even thrive in these evolving circumstances. In this exploratory case study, the research participants (faculty in a small central Alberta institution) contributed interesting insights with respect to their perceptions of change and the need and urgency for change in the sector. In addition, they shared interesting perspectives with respect to several topic areas, in particular provincial governance and technology. They especially identified that the influence of technology, with respect to curriculum, teaching and learning and other aspects of institutional operation, was pervasive. Furthermore, I discovered that faculty in general may not be naturally inclined to contribute to their institution’s change efforts, given their primary job responsibilities. However, it appeared that some members, generally those who had taken on leadership roles and/or additional education, demonstrated awareness of larger and far reaching aspects of the change forces impacting the sector. Thus, faculty members, when adequately prepared for discussions related to change, can enhance the welfare of their home institutions in these challenging environments. Thus, it may take some preparation by committed leaders to get larger portions of that constituency group to contribute to the larger organizational effort, but early indications are that the investment in those efforts are worthwhile.
- ItemOpen AccessProfessional Collaboration as Responsive Pedagogy(University of Calgary, 2015-06) Brown, Barb; Eaton, Sarah; Dressler, Roswita; Jacobsen, Michele; Werklund School of EducationIn this paper, action research is explored as a process for professional learning and collaboration among post secondary teachers. Qualitative data from reflective journals maintained by instructors who taught multiple sections of a masters research course over a two-year period informed the exploration of responsive pedagogy. Action research is discussed as a methodology used by instructors to reflect on practice in order to engage in continuous quality improvement of learning in higher education. The authors share how action research proved to be a valuable methodology used to guide this reflective experience and can be used to inform ongoing instructional design processes and future research.
- ItemOpen AccessTeacher Professional Knowledge Building Networks: Creating Opportunities for Teacher-Shared Knowledge Creation(2018-01-11) Perdue, Marcie Dawn; Lock, Jennifer; Spencer, Brenda; Eaton, SarahThe purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which the development of a professional knowledge building network could increase the collective knowledge building and shared learning of teachers within one rural Alberta school division. The goal of this case study research is to examine the ways teachers share and build professional knowledge within a networked environment and identify specific inhibitors to knowledge building that may impact effective shared knowledge creation. A Conceptual Framework for the Creation of Shared Professional Knowledge was developed for this case study that provided a better understanding of knowledge building among teachers, as well as specific design features needed in a professional knowledge building network. Throughout this case study, different data sources such as questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, server log data, and card sorts provided a variety of personal perspectives and experiences with regards to professional knowledge creation shared among teachers. The findings from this study identified several Knowledge Building Inhibitors that impact the successful sharing and building of knowledge. This study also highlighted the importance of relational trust with regards to successful knowledge building and indicated that teacher expertise plays an important role in knowledge reciprocity. Overall, this research study provided a unique perspective with regards to effective teacher-shared knowledge creation within a knowledge building network.
- ItemOpen AccessTeachers in the wild are pragmatic: An Integral Analysis of Teachers’ Perspectives on the Integration of Technology in Teaching(2017) Ikenouye, David; Bohac Clarke, Veronika; Eaton, Sarah; Davis, Andrew; Friesen, Sharon; Donlevy, James; Redmond, PetreaThe purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ integration of technology from multiple perspectives to gain a rich and contextualized understanding of how they genuinely use technology in the classroom. Four research questions were addressed in this study; (a) What influence does technology infrastructure have on teachers using technology? (b) What do teachers believe and think about technology? (c) What is the technological culture that teachers’ experience? (d) What is the influence of policies on teachers’ use of technology? Wilber’s Integral methodological pluralism was used as a framework to orient the study, to organize the research questions and to provide the conceptual framework for the research methodology. Teachers experience a lack of access to technology which proved to be a barrier to most. However, teachers with mature understanding of technology enabled student knowledge creation, successfully overcame these barriers. Teachers must navigate the changing technology connected classroom culture for students to experience academic success. Teachers struggle with policies that make the technology program of studies vague and without specific outcomes. However, a ministerial focus on technology to support the communication and creation of knowledge by students rather than on supporting teaching, encourages the development of mature technology integration.