Browsing by Author "McCormack, Gavin R."
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- ItemOpen AccessA Mixed Methods Study on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity Associated with Residential Relocation(2018-11-01) Salvo, Grazia; Lashewicz, Bonnie M.; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; McCormack, Gavin R.Despite evidence suggesting that neighbourhood characteristics are associated with physical activity, very few mixed methods studies investigate how relocating neighbourhood, and subsequent changes in the built environment, influences physical activity. This sequential mixed methods study estimates associations between changes in overall physical activity and transportation walking and cycling and changes in objectively assessed neighbourhood walkability (quantitative phase) and describes perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity following residential relocation (qualitative phase). During the quantitative phase, self-reported changes in transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity following residential relocation were measured using a 5-point scale: (1) a lot less now, (2) a little less now, (3) about the same, (4) a little more now, and (5) a lot more now. Walkability improvers reported a slight increase in transportation walking (mean = 3.29, standard deviation (SD) = 0.87), while walkability decliners reported little or no perceived change in their transportation walking after relocation (mean = 2.96, SD = 1.12). This difference approached statistical significance (). Furthermore, walkability decliners reported a slight decrease in transportation cycling (mean = 2.69, SD = 0.96), while walkability improvers reported little or no perceived change in their transportation cycling after relocation (mean = 3.02, SD = 0.84). This difference was statistically significant (). Change in walkability resulting from relocation was not significantly associated with perceived change in overall physical activity. Our qualitative findings suggest that moving to a neighbourhood with safe paths connecting to nearby destinations can facilitate transportation walking and cycling. Some participants describe adjusting their leisure physical activity to compensate for changes in transportation walking and cycling. Strong contributors to neighbourhood leisure physical activity included the presence of aesthetic features and availability of recreational opportunities that allow for the creation of social connections with community and family.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing inter-rater agreement of environmental audit data in a matched case-control study on bicycling injuries(BMJ Publishing Group, 2013-01-30) Romanow, Nicole T.R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.BACKGROUND: Environmental audit tools must be reliable in order to accurately estimate the association between built environmental characteristics and bicycling injury risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine the inter-rater agreement of a built environment audit tool within a case-control study on the environmental determinants of bicycling injuries. METHODS: Auditor pairs visited locations where bicycling injuries occurred and independently recorded location characteristics using the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan (SPACES). Two case groups were defined: (1) where a bicyclist was struck by a motor-vehicle (MV) and (2) where the bicyclist's injuries required hospitalisation. The two corresponding control groups were (1) where non-MV bicycle-related injuries occurred and (2) where minor bicycle-related injuries occurred. Inter-rater reliability of each item on the tool was assessed using observed agreement and κ with 95% CI. RESULTS: Ninety-seven locations were audited. Inter-observer agreement was generally high (≥95%); most items had a 1-2% difference in responses. Items with ≥5% differences between raters included path condition, slope and obstructions. For land use, path and roadway characteristics, κ ranged from 0.3 for presence of offices and cleanliness to 0.9 for schools and number of lanes; overall, 78% of items had at least substantial agreement (κ≥0.61). For bicyclists struck by a MV the proportion of items with substantial agreement was 60%, compared with 73% for non-MV related injuries. For hospitalisations and minor bicycle-related injuries, 76% of items had substantial agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement was substantial for most, but not all SPACES items. The SPACES provides reliable quantitative descriptions of built environmental characteristics at bicycling injury locations.
- ItemOpen AccessThe association between sidewalk length and walking for different purposes in established neighborhoods(BioMed Central, 2012) McCormack, Gavin R.; Shiell, Alan; Giles-Corti, Billie; Begg, Stephen; Veerman, J Lennert; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Amarasinghe, Anura; Emery, JC Herb
- ItemOpen AccessAssociations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents(2014-09-24) Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, PenelopeBackground. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years), achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership) and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.). For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96). Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49). Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociations between neighbourhood built characteristics and sedentary behaviours among Canadian men and women: Findings from Alberta’s tomorrow project(Elsevier, 2021-06-03) Nichani, Vikram; Turley, Liam; Vena, Jennifer E.; McCormack, Gavin R.Evidence of associations between neighbourhood built characteristics and sedentary behaviours is mixed. The study aim was to investigate the associations between objectively-derived neighbourhood built characteristics and self-reported sedentary behaviours among Canadian men and women. This study sourced survey data from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (2008; n=14,785), in which sitting and motor vehicle travel times during the last 7 days was measured. Geographic Information System was used to calculate neighbourhood built characteristics within a 400m buffer of participant’s home and a walkability score was estimated. To estimate the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sedentary behaviours, covariate-adjusted generalized linear regression models were used. Walkability, 3-way intersections, and population count were positively associated with sitting time. Business destinations and greenness were negatively associated with sitting time. Walkability, 3-way, and 4-way intersections were negatively associated with motor vehicle travel time. Sex-specific associations between neighbourhood characteristics and sedentary behaviour were found. Among men, business destinations were negatively associated with sitting time, and 3-way intersections, population count, and walkability were negatively associated with motor vehicle travel time. Among women, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was negatively associated with sitting time. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviours may need to target neighbourhoods that have built characteristics which might support these behaviours. More research is needed to disentangle the complex relationships between different neighbourhood built characteristics and specific types of sedentary behaviour.
- ItemOpen AccessThe associations between objectively-determined and self-reported urban form characteristics and neighborhood-based walking in adults(BioMed Central, 2014-06-04) Jack, Elizabeth; McCormack, Gavin R.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociations between the neighbourhood characteristics and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio: findings from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project(Elsevier, 2020-05-29) Nichani, Vikram; Turley, Liam; Vena, Jennifer E.; McCormack, Gavin R.This study estimated the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) risk categories among Canadian men and women. Using data from the Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (n=14,550), we estimated 3- and 4-way intersections, business destinations, population count, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 400m radius of participant's home. Intersections, business destinations, and population count (z-scores) were summed to create a walkability score. Four-way intersections and walkability were negatively associated with overweight and obesity. Walkability was negatively associated with obesity. NDVI was negatively associated with high-risk WHR and population count and walkability positively associated with high-risk WHR. Among men, population count and walkability were negatively associated with obesity, and business destinations and walkability were negatively associated with overweight and obesity. Among women, NDVI was negatively associated with overweight (including obesity), obesity, and high-risk WC. Interventions promoting healthy weight could incorporate strategies that take into consideration local built environment characteristics.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociations between the traditional and novel neighbourhood built environment metrics and weight status among Canadian men and women.(Springer : Canadian Public Health Association, 2020-06-08) Nichani, Vikram; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Oka, Koichiro; Nakaya, Tomoki; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Yasunaga, Akitomo; Turley, Liam; McCormack, Gavin R.Objectives: Neighbourhood characteristics can impact the health of residents. This study investigated associations between objectively-derived neighbourhood characteristics, including novel space syntax metrics, and self-reported body mass index (BMI) among Canadian men and women. Methods: Our study included survey data collected from a random cross-section of adults residing in Calgary, Alberta (n=1,718). The survey, conducted in 2007/2008, captured participant’s sociodemographic characteristics, health, and weight status (BMI). Participant’s household postal codes were geocoded and 1600m lined-based network buffers estimated. Using Geographical Information System, we estimated neighbourhood characteristics within each buffer including business destination density, street intersection density, sidewalk length, and population density. Using space syntax, we estimated street integration and walkability (street integration plus population density) within each buffer. Using adjusted regression models, we estimated associations between neighbourhood characteristics and BMI (continuous) and BMI categories (healthy weight versus overweight including obese). Gender-stratified analysis was also performed. Results: Business destination density was negatively associated with BMI and the odds of being overweight. Among men, street intersection density and sidewalk length were negatively associated with BMI and street intersection density, business destination density, street integration, and space syntax walkability were negatively associated with odds of being overweight. Among women, business destination density was negatively associated with BMI. Conclusion: Urban planning policies that impact neighbourhood design has the potential to influence weight among adults living in urban Canadian settings. Some characteristics may have a differential association with weight among men and women and should be considered in urban planning and in neighbourhood-focussed public health interventions.
- ItemOpen AccessCross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the built environment and walking: effect modification by socioeconomic status(2022-06-21) Christie, Chelsea D.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Turley, Liam; McCormack, Gavin R.Abstract Background Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been shown to modify associations between the neighborhood built environment and physical activity, contradictory results exist. Objectives of this cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis were to: 1) examine whether overall neighborhood walkability and specific built characteristics were associated with walking among adults at a single point in time and after they relocate neighborhoods, and 2) test for effect modification of these associations by SES. Methods We linked longitudinal data from 703 adults who relocated urban neighborhoods between two waves of Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (2008–2015) to neighborhood built environment data. We created a walkability index from measures of population counts, street connectivity, and destination diversity within 400 m of participants’ homes. In cross-sectional analyses, we used generalized linear models to estimate associations between built characteristics and minutes walked per week at baseline. For the longitudinal analyses, we used fixed-effects linear regression models to estimate associations between changes in built characteristics and minutes walked per week. We also assessed if indicators of SES (individual education or household income) modified both sets of associations. Results Most cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were small and statistically non-significant. Neighborhood population count (b = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.07) and street connectivity (b = − 1.75, 95% CI: − 3.26, − 0.24) were cross-sectionally associated with walking duration among the overall sample. None of the longitudinal associations were statistically significant among the overall sample. There was limited evidence of effect modification by SES, however, we found negative cross-sectional associations between street connectivity and walking among adults with lower education and income, and a positive association between percent change in walkability and change in walking among lower educated adults. Conclusions Despite population count and street connectivity being associated with walking at baseline, changes in these built environment variables were not associated with changes in walking following residential relocation. Our findings also provide evidence, albeit weak, that changes in neighborhood walkability, resulting from residential relocation, might more strongly affect walking among low SES adults. Further longitudinal research is needed to examine built environment characteristics with walking for different purposes and to test for inequitable socioeconomic impacts.
- ItemOpen AccessA cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometerbased physical activity among elementary school children(BioMed Central, 2011-04-11) McCormack, Gavin R.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Timperio, Anna; Wood, Georgina; Villanueva, Karen
- ItemOpen AccessDetermining the cause of motor-vehicle related paediatric bicycling injuries(2018-07-18) Pitt, Tona Michael Chase; Hagel, Brent Edward; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Howard, Andrew W.; Ronsky, Janet L.Despite health benefits, bicycling as a form of active transportation has declined. Bicycle-motor vehicle collisions (BMVCs) pose a risk for severe injury to youth and are a leading deterrent to youth bicycling. This thesis aims to identify characteristics of BMVCs. Divided roads with no barrier, signage presence and peak traffic times had lower odds of severe injury in youth after BMVC. We adapted a culpability tool to Alberta police collision report data and used this tool to define a control group of drivers from collisions involving only motor vehicles. These controls were compared with drivers in BMVCs. Drivers older than 54 years had higher odds of youth BMVC, light trucks/vans had lower odds and driving between18:01hrs-24:00hrs had the highest odds of BMVC. It is possible to adapt culpability tools to other jurisdictions and can be used to address the often-neglected role of the driver in youth BMVCs.
- ItemOpen AccessDoes dog-ownership influence seasonal patterns of neighbourhood-based walking among adults? A longitudinal study(BioMed Central, 2011-03-04) Lail, Parabhdeep; McCormack, Gavin R.; Rock, Melanie
- ItemOpen AccessEnvironmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada(2012-11-28) Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety.
- ItemEmbargoThe Feasibility and Impact of a Painted Designs Intervention on School Children’s Physical Activity(Taylor and Francis Group, 2022-06-16) Wong, Janet B.; McCallum, Kyle S.; Frehlich, Levi; Bridel, William; McDonough, Meghan H.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Fox, Kris; Brunton, Laura; Yardley, Leah; Emery, Carolyn A.; Hagel, BrentInterventions such as painted designs on school tarmacs may increase children’s physical activity during school hours. This mixed-methods study examined the influence of a painted designs (e.g., traditional games, random circles) intervention on the physical activity experiences of elementary school children. Systematic observations and accelerometer data were collected to evaluate the type and quantity of student physical activity. Interviews were used to explore teacher and student experiences. Observed physical activity was not significantly different between intervention and control schools (t(43) = 0.22, p = 0.83), and children at the intervention schools undertook less physical activity (steps, moderate, vigorous, and combined moderate-to-vigorous activity) as compared with the control school (t = 2.71- 4.35, p < 0.05). Teachers and students commented that the painted designs were confusing but held potential for inclusiveness, physical activity, and learning. Additional resources and instruction may assist in better use of painted designs for physical activity and academic learning.
- ItemOpen AccessFriendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review(BioMed Central, 2013-12-01) Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.
- ItemEmbargoImpact of a farmers’ market healthy food subsidy on the diet quality of adults with low incomes in British Columbia, Canada: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial(Elsevier, 2023-02-01) Aktary, Michelle L.; Dunn, Sharlette; Sajobi, Tolulope; O'Hara, Heather; Leblanc, Peter; McCormack, Gavin R.; Caron-Roy, Stephanie; Ball, Kylie; Lee, Yun Yun; Nejatinamini, Sara; Reimer, Raylene A.; Pan, Bo; Minaker, Leia M.; Raine, Kim D.; Godley, Jenny; Downs, Shauna; Nykiforuk, Candace I.J.; Olstad, Dana LeeAdults with low incomes have lower diet quality than their higher income counterparts. In Canada, the British Columbia Farmers’ Market Nutrition Coupon Program (FMNCP) provides coupons to low-income households to purchase healthy foods in farmers’ markets.
- ItemOpen AccessIn search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults(BioMed Central, 2011-06-28) McCormack, Gavin R.; Shiell, Alan
- ItemOpen AccessInteractions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults(2017-09-05) McCormack, Gavin R.; Friedenreich, Christine; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; Csizmadi, IlonaNeighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES) and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Canadian adults ( from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods). WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns) and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight). The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary.
- ItemOpen AccessMotivation and Social Factors Associated with Exercise Fidelity in a Basketball Neuromuscular Training Prevention Warm-up in Youth(2019-09-18) Befus, Kimberley Darlene; Emery, Carolyn A.; McDonough, Meghan H.; Pasanen, Kati; Kenny, Sarah J.; McCormack, Gavin R.Objective: To establish the reliability of an observational tool for the evaluation of exercise fidelity and to understand the influence of motivational and social factors, in the basketball context, on exercise fidelity to the SHRed Injuries Basketball Neuromuscular warm-up program in youth. Methods: First, an inter-rater reliability study for the evaluation of exercise fidelity by an expert and non-expert rater which consisting of two rounds of training, practice and exercise fidelity evaluation using video clips. Percent agreement and Bland Altman agreement were used to evaluate the reliability of ratings between an expert and non-expert rater. Second, a prospective cohort study in which 66 high school basketball players, participating in the 2018-2019 school basketball season, completed questionnaires which addressed the constructs of perceived autonomy support, quality of change-oriented feedback, motivation and perceived competence, in the basketball context. Approximately one-week later players were filmed completing the warm-up as part of their normal routine. Exercise fidelity was evaluated by the non-expert rater using the video clips. Conditional process analysis was used to analyse the purposed models. Results: An acceptable level of reliability was reached for the evaluation of exercise fidelity. Autonomy support was a direct negative predictor and an indirect positive predictor, via autonomous motivation, of exercise fidelity. Autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of exercise fidelity. Self-determined motivation and quality of change-oriented feedback were not found to be significant predictors of exercise fidelity. Conclusions: Autonomy support and autonomous motivation may play a role in player adherence to an injury prevention warm-up program.
- ItemOpen AccessNeighbourhood walkability associated with initiation of, and adherence to, a pedometer-based physical activity intervention among inactive Canadian adults(2019-08-12) Consoli, Anna; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Spence, John R.; Yang, LinConsistent evidence suggests that the built environment can influence physical activity. However, the extent to which the neighbourhood built environment constrains or amplifies the effectiveness of physical activity interventions is understudied. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of the neighbourhood built environment in constraining or facilitating the effectiveness of a 12-week internet-facilitated pedometer-based physical activity intervention (UWALK) among inactive adults. Specifically, this thesis examined the effects of the objectively-measured neighbourhood built environment (i.e., walkability estimated via Walk Score®) and the self-reported (perceived) neighbourhood built environment on adoption of, adherence to the UWALK intervention, and levels of pedometer-measured physical activity. A quasi-experiment was undertaken in Calgary between May 2016 and August 2017 which included 573 inactive adults. Self-reported walkability was positively associated with pedometer-measured physical activity. Walk Score® was not significantly associated with pedometer-measured physical activity. Neither objectively-measured walkability or perceived walkability were significantly associated with UWALK adoption or adherence outcomes. Strategies for targeting neighbourhood perceptions may improve the effectiveness of physical activity interventions.