Browsing by Author "Metcalfe, Amy"
Now showing 1 - 20 of 28
Results Per Page
- ItemOpen AccessAge-period-cohort effects in pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases amongst primiparous women(2020-04-19) Metcalfe, Amy; Ahmed, Sofia B; Nerenberg, KaraAbstract Background The average age at first birth is steadily increasing in developed countries; however, demographic shifts in maternal age at childbearing have not occurred in isolation. While temporal increases in adverse pregnancy outcomes are typically attributed to increases in maternal age, little is known about how maternal health status has changed across maternal age, period of delivery, and birth cohort. Methods Natality files were used to identify primiparous women delivering liveborn, singleton infants in the USA in 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014 (n = 6,857,185). Age-period-cohort models using the intrinsic estimator adjusted for temporal trends in smoking and gestational weight gain were used to quantify temporal changes in the rates of pre-existing (chronic hypertension, pre-existing diabetes) and pregnancy-associated (pregnancy-associated hypertension, gestational diabetes, eclampsia) diseases. Log-linear models were used to model the impact of temporal changes on preterm birth, small, and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) births. Results Significant period effects resulted in temporal increases in the rate of chronic hypertension, pregnancy-associated hypertension, and gestational diabetes, and a significant decrease in the rate of eclampsia. These observed period effects were associated with a 10.6% increase in the rate of SGA and a 7.1% decrease in LGA. Had the rate of pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases remained static over this time period, the rate of preterm birth would have increased by 5.9%, but instead only increased by 4.4%. Conclusions Independent of changes in the incidence of pre-existing and pregnancy-associated diseases as women age, the obstetric population is becoming less healthy over time. This is important, as these changes have a direct negative impact on short-term obstetric outcomes and women’s long-term health.
- ItemOpen AccessThe association between temporal changes in the use of obstetrical intervention and small- for-gestational age live births(BMC, 2015-09-29) Metcalfe, Amy; Lisonkova, Sarka; Joseph, KSBackground: The literature attributes secular declines in small-for-gestational age (SGA) live births to changes in maternal smoking and other maternal characteristics. However, there are reasons to believe that the observed reductions in SGA may be a consequence of early delivery following obstetric intervention. Methods: We examined temporal trends in obstetrical intervention and SGA among singleton live births in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The modified Kitagawa decomposition, based on the fetuses-at-risk approach, was used to assess the relative contribution of changes in the gestational age distribution and gestational age-specific SGA to overall changes in SGA. Reductions in SGA rates due to a left shift in the gestational age distribution were assumed to primarily reflect increased obstetrical intervention, whereas decreases in overall SGA due to decreases in gestational-age-specific SGA rates were assumed to reflect declines in risk factors. Results: Temporal trends in SGA followed a non-linear pattern, with substantial declines from 10.1 % in 1990–92 to 8.9 % in 2002–04, followed by a small increase to 9.1 % in 2008–10. Rates of maternal smoking steadily decreased throughout the same time period and changes in SGA rates were more consistent with changes in the gestational age distribution. The modified Kitagawa decomposition analysis also attributed the initial decline in SGA rates to changes in the gestational age distribution. Conclusions: Complex temporal pattern in SGA rates cannot be explained by the linear pattern of changes in factors like maternal smoking. Changes in the gestational age distribution are more consistent with the observed secular trends in SGA rates.
- ItemOpen AccessAssociation of prenatal medical risk with breastfeeding outcomes up to 12 months in the All Our Families community-based birth cohort(2021-09-15) Scime, Natalie V.; Metcalfe, Amy; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Tough, Suzanne C.; Chaput, Kathleen H.Abstract Background Prenatal medical risk describes physical health issues or biological factors that predate or arise during pregnancy which heighten the risk of adverse outcomes, and often warrant specialized obstetric care. The influence of the nature and magnitude of prenatal risk on breastfeeding outcomes remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the association between prenatal medical risk and breastfeeding initiation and duration up to 1 year postpartum. Methods We analysed a subset of data from the All Our Families longitudinal cohort (n = 2706) of women in Calgary, Canada who delivered a liveborn infant between 2008 and 2010. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires and medical records. Women with complete data on prenatal medical risk factors and breastfeeding outcomes were included in this analysis. Prenatal medical risk was operationalized as one integer score of risk severity and four binary risk types capturing pre-pregnancy characteristics, past obstetric problems, current obstetric problems, and substance use. Outcomes were breastfeeding initiation defined as the infant ever receiving breast milk, and duration operationalized as still breastfeeding at 4 months, at 12 months, and time to breastfeeding cessation in weeks. We used logistic regression and Cox regression with right censoring at 52 weeks or attrition to calculate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively, adjusting for sociodemographic vulnerability, parity, mode of delivery, and gestational age. Results Prenatal medical risk severity and type were not significantly associated with breastfeeding initiation, with the exception of pre-pregnancy risk type (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.26, 0.77). Risk severity was associated with lower odds of breastfeeding to 4 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.99), 12 months (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87, 0.98), and earlier breastfeeding cessation (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02, 1.08). Associations with shorter breastfeeding length across the first postpartum year were observed for pre-pregnancy, current obstetric, and substance use risk types, but not past obstetric problems. Conclusion Prenatal medical risk is associated with shortened duration of breastfeeding. Women with prenatal medical risk may benefit from the proactive arrangement of lactation support before and following delivery to promote continued breastfeeding.
- ItemOpen AccessBreastfeeding difficulties in the first 6 weeks postpartum among mothers with chronic conditions: a latent class analysis(2023-02-02) Scime, Natalie V.; Metcalfe, Amy; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Nerenberg, Kara; Seow, Cynthia H.; Tough, Suzanne C.; Chaput, Kathleen H.Abstract Background Breastfeeding difficulties frequently exacerbate one another and are common reasons for curtailed breastfeeding. Women with chronic conditions are at high risk of early breastfeeding cessation, yet limited evidence exists on the breastfeeding difficulties that co-occur in these mothers. The objective of this study was to explore clusters of breastfeeding difficulties experienced up to 6 weeks postpartum among mothers with chronic conditions and to examine associations between chronic condition types and breastfeeding difficulty clusters. Methods We analyzed 348 mothers with chronic conditions enrolled in a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort study from Alberta, Canada. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. We used latent class analysis to identify clusters of early breastfeeding difficulties and multinomial logistic regression to examine whether types of chronic conditions were associated with these clusters, adjusting for maternal and obstetric factors. Results We identified three clusters of breastfeeding difficulties. The “physiologically expected” cluster (51.1% of women) was characterized by leaking breasts and engorgement (reference outcome group); the “low milk production” cluster (15.4%) was discerned by low milk supply and infant weight concerns; and the “ineffective latch” cluster (33.5%) involved latch problems, sore nipples, and difficulty with positioning. Endocrine (adjusted relative risk ratio [RRR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.10–5.00), cardiovascular (adjusted RRR 2.75, 95% CI 1.01–7.81), and gastrointestinal (adjusted RRR 2.51, 95% CI 1.11–5.69) conditions were associated with the low milk production cluster, and gastrointestinal (adjusted RRR 2.44, 95% CI 1.25–4.77) conditions were additionally associated with the ineffective latch cluster. Conclusion Half of women with chronic conditions experienced clusters of breastfeeding difficulties corresponding either to low milk production or to ineffective latch in the first 6 weeks postpartum. Associations with chronic condition types suggest that connections between lactation physiology and disease pathophysiology should be considered when providing breastfeeding support.
- ItemEmbargoBreastfeeding intentions, difficulties, and outcomes in mothers with chronic physical health conditions: the Motherhood and Chronic Illness (MaCI) prospective cohort study(2022-07-11) Scime, Natalie V.; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C; Metcalfe, Amy; Nettel-Aguirre, AlbertoBreastfeeding from birth to 6 months has numerous benefits for maternal and child health. Mothers with chronic conditions are at risk for suboptimal breastfeeding outcomes, yet the underlying reasons for this are poorly understood. This thesis research investigated the factors associated with breastfeeding intentions, difficulties, and outcomes in mothers with chronic conditions. We conducted a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort study called the Motherhood and Chronic Illness (MaCI) Study following 405 women from Alberta who reported living with a long-term physical health condition, carrying a singleton pregnancy, and intending to try breastfeeding. Women completed questionnaires at 32 weeks gestation, 6 weeks postpartum, and 6 months postpartum (overall response rate, 86.7%). In the prenatal period, we found that women who perceived their chronic condition to worsen during pregnancy were less likely to plan to exclusively breastfeed to 6 months per the global recommendation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.82). From birth to 6 weeks postpartum, we identified three clusters of breastfeeding difficulties corresponding to physiologically expected lactation changes (51.1% of women), low milk production (15.4%), and ineffective latch (33.5%). Mothers with endocrine (adjusted relative risk ratio [RRR] 2.41, 95% CI 1.13–5.13), cardiovascular (adjusted RRR 2.87, 95% CI 1.02–8.09), and gastrointestinal (adjusted RRR 2.57, 95% CI 1.13–5.82) conditions were more likely to belong to the low milk production cluster and mothers with gastrointestinal (adjusted RRR 2.47, 95% CI 1.27–4.81) conditions were more likely to belong to the ineffective latch cluster, relative to the physiologically expected cluster. By 6 months postpartum, we found that one third (31.2%) of mothers had stopped breastfeeding, nearly all of whom did so earlier than planned. Compared to mothers who adhered to their pre-existing medications, mothers who did not adhere to pre-existing medications had shorter breastfeeding duration (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% CI 1.04–2.74) and greater odds of earlier than planned breastfeeding cessation (adjusted OR 1.85, 1.01–3.41). The MaCI Study highlighted three unique determinants of breastfeeding in mothers with chronic conditions, which can be addressed through person-centred support that jointly considers the ways in which breastfeeding patterns influence, and are influenced by, chronic condition status and management.
- ItemOpen AccessCardiovascular Consequences of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy(2020-01) Wen, Chuan; Anderson, Todd J.; Nerenberg, Kara A.; Metcalfe, Amy; Johnson, Jo-Ann M.; Signal, Ronald J.; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M.; McDonald, SarahHypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GHTN), are independently associated with increased maternal cardiovascular risk. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the crucial pathophysiology of preeclampsia and might be the connection between preeclampsia and future cardiovascular risk. The postpartum period offers a time window to identify and begin to manage modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. However, limited studies have focused on the first years postpartum and the opportunity for early cardiovascular prevention may be lost. Few studies have longitudinally observed the changes of vascular function by different measures. The aims of this study were to detect: Subsequent hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia in women with/without HDP over the first years postpartum by linking three administrative databases. The alterations of vascular function during pregnancy by using flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), hyperemic velocity-time integral (VTI) and peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and the relationship between vascular function indices and utero-placental ultrasonographic and biochemical markers. Our results highlighted women with HDP had higher odds of hypertension (GHTN adjusted OR [aOR]: 5.82[4.96-6.83]; preeclampsia: aOR: 4.97[3.63-6.81]), dyslipidemia (GHTN: aOR: 2.22[1.47-3.35]; preeclampsia: aOR: 1.41[1.10-1.80]), and diabetes (GHTN: aOR: 2.26[1.50, 13.4]; PE: 2.02[0.91, 4.46]) during 4 years postpartum than the normotensive pregnancy. Half of the women with HDP had no lipid testing. They were not more likely to be tested than normotensive women after adjusting for confounders. Women with GHTN and preeclampsia had less favorable and more atherogenic lab results than the normal controls. Non-significant changes of FMD and hyperemic VTI over pregnancy were detected. The PAT index declined consistently during pregnancy and this may have been related to vasodilator changes of baseline pulse wave amplitude. The uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) was not correlated with the standard measures of endothelial function. There were mild correlations between UtA-PI and baseline flow, sFlT-1 and ln(sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) with baseline flow and baseline VTI in the first trimester. Our study implies the needs of early postpartum screening for hypertension, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia in women with HDP. FMD, hyperemic VTI and PAT index might not be directly used as markers to represent the macrovascular and microvascular function during pregnancy.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of Remote Peer-Counsellor- delivered Behavioral Activation and Peer-support for Antenatal Depression on Gestational Age at Delivery: a single-blind, randomized control trial(2023-03-30) Chaput, Kathleen H.; Freeman, Makayla; McMorris, Carly; Metcalfe, Amy; Cameron, Emily E.; Jung, James; Tough, Suzanne; Hicks, Laurel M.; Dimidjian, Sona; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M.Abstract Background Antenatal depression (AD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries and increases the risk of preterm birth (PTB). Many pregnant individuals with AD do not obtain treatment due in part to risks associated with antidepressant medications, the expense and wait times for psychological services, and perceived stigma. Accessible and timely treatment of antenatal depression is crucial to minimize foetal impacts and associated long-term child health outcomes. Previous studies show that behavioural activation and peer support are promising avenues of treatment for perinatal depression. Additionally, remote and paraprofessional counselling interventions show promise as more accessible, sustainable, and cost-effective treatment avenues than traditional psychological services. The primary aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a remote, behavioural activation and peer support intervention, administered by trained peer para-professionals, for increasing gestational age at delivery among those with antenatal depression. The secondary aims are to evaluate the effectiveness for treating AD prior to delivery, with persistence into the postpartum; improving anxiety symptoms; and improving parenting self-efficacy compared to controls. Methods A two-arm, single-blinded, parallel groups randomized controlled trial (RCT) with repeated measures will be conducted. Participants scoring >10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale will be recruited from the larger P3 cohort and invited to enroll. Assessments will be conducted prior to 27 weeks’ gestation at trial intake (T1), post-intervention, prior to delivery (T2), 5–6 months postpartum (T3), and 11–12 months postpartum (T4) and will include self-report questionnaires and linked medical records. Discussion Our remote, peer paraprofessional-delivered behavioural activation plus peer support intervention has the potential to successfully reduce symptoms of AD, which may in turn decrease the risk of PTB and subsequent health impacts. The current trial builds on previous findings and uses a patient-oriented approach to address priorities for patient care and to provide a cost-effective, accessible, and evidence-based treatment to pregnant individuals with AD. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry (ISRCTN51098220) ISRCTN51098220. Registered on April 7, 2022.
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluation of the Effect of Hospital and Physician Factors on Likelihood of Revision After Mid-Urethral Sling Placement(2020-01) Brennand, Erin Alexandra; Quan, Hude; Metcalfe, Amy; Peng, Mingkai; McCaughey, DeirdreObjective: To estimate rates of revision surgery after insertion of mesh midurethral slings (MUS) and explore if healthcare attributes such as physician specialty, annual operative volume, or hospital type are risk factors for this outcome. Methods: This study used a population-based retrospective cohort of women who underwent MUS insertion over a 13-year interval (2004–2017) in Alberta, Canada. The main outcome was subsequent surgery for revision of MUS, defined by a composite of surgical procedures. Exposures included annual number of MUS procedures performed by the surgeon, facility type, surgeon specialty, patient age, and concomitant prolapse repair. Mixed-effects logistic regression utilizing linear spines was used to test the a priori hypothesis that annual surgical volume would be inversely related in a non-linear fashion to risk of revision. Results: In a cohort of 19,511 women, cumulative rates of revision surgery were 3.36% (95% CI 3.06–3.68) at 5 years and 4.57% (95% CI 4.00–5.21) at 10 years. The first year after MUS insertion was the most vulnerable window, with 0.39% (95% CI 0.31–0.49) undergoing revision within 30 days and 2.05% (95% CI 1.85–2.26) within a year. Concomitant prolapse repairs (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04–1.48) and surgeon’s annual volume were associated with revision. After 50 cases per year, odds of revision declined with each additional case (OR = 0.991 per case, 95% CI 0.983–0.999; OR = 0.91 per 10 cases, 95% CI 0.84–0.98) and plateaued at 110 cases per year. Surgeon specialty, hospital type, and patient age were not associated with outcome. Conclusions and relevance: Within 10 years, nearly 1 in 20 women underwent revision surgery after MUS insertion. Physician annual surgical volume appears to be a risk factor, with a decline in risk of revision surgery occurring at an annual threshold of >50 cases. Given that annual case volume is a potentially modifiable risk factor, development of policies regarding minimum caseload parameters for surgeons performing MUS procedures may hold potential to improve the quality of MUS surgery.
- ItemOpen AccessExamining Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Status, Anxiety and Depression during Pregnancy, and Preterm Birth(2019-07-10) Adhikari Dahal, Kamala; Metcalfe, Amy; Patten, Scott B.; Williamson, Tyler S.; Patel, Alka B.Background: Understanding of influence of anxiety, depression, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is unclear. This doctoral research examined the ability of neighbourhood SES to predict the risk of PTB, the utility of existing anxiety scales in measuring anxiety in pregnancy, and whether neighbourhood SES modified the association between anxiety and depression during pregnancy and PTB. Methods: This study used data from two pregnancy cohort studies in Alberta, Canada (n=5,528). The data were linked to neighbourhood SES data, derived from the Canadian census. A multilevel logistic regression prediction model was developed to examine whether neighbourhood SES improves the prediction of PTB. Confirmatory factor analysis and Spearman correlation were used to examine the utility of anxiety scales in pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess whether neighbourhood SES modifies the association between anxiety and/or depression and PTB. Results: Neighbourhood level variance explained PTB by 6%. Neighbourhood SES combined with maternal characteristics predicted PTB with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.75. Maternal characteristics alone had AUC of 0.60. The model fit of anxiety scales ranged from inadequate to adequate. The correlation between the scales was low to moderate. The presence of both anxiety and depression, but neither anxiety nor depression alone, was significantly associated with PTB (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.07, 2.29) and had significant interaction with neighbourhood deprivation (p-value=0.014). Conclusions: This research may suggest that women’s neighbourhood SES improves overall prediction of PTB and that it modifies the effects of anxiety and depression on risk of PTB. It may also indicate that existing anxiety scales do not measure anxiety as a single dimension and they are incomparable. These findings may guide the identification of women at increased risk for PTB and future research in the field.
- ItemOpen AccessExclusive Breastfeeding and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A Calgary Cohort(OMICS Group Corporation, 2012-04-25) O'Quinn, Candace; Metcalfe, Amy; McDonald, Sheila W.; Raguz, Nikolett; Tough, Suzanne C.
- ItemOpen AccessHospital and Individual Variations of Surgical Errors and Complications in Caesarean Section in the United States(2018-06-04) Sheikh, Manal Salim; Metcalfe, Amy; Nelson, Gregg; Wood, Stephen L.Background: Caesarean Section (CS) is the most common inpatient surgery performed internationally. Although CS is typically performed to prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, there is still a risk of surgical errors and complications. This study examined maternal and hospital risk factors associated with errors and complications following CS in the United States (US). Methods: Data were obtained from the 2012-2014 National Inpatient Sample, a deidentified database containing a random sample of 20% of hospital discharges in the US. Surgical errors (e.g. foreign body retained during surgery) can be the result of human error, while complications (e.g. infection) can be due to external factors such as preexisting comorbidities. The overall incidence of surgical errors and complications in CS was calculated. Bivariate analysis examined the association between surgical errors and complications in CS, and potential individual and hospital level covariates. Multilevel logistic modelling examined the association between individual (e.g. race) and hospital (e.g. CS volume), and errors and complications. Results: Among 648,584 CS hospitalizations, 1.98% (95%CI: 1.95%-2.01%) and 9.67% (95%CI: 9.59%-9.74%) of women had an error or complication, respectively. The odds of developing a complication were 15.90 (95%CI: 15.33-16.49) if an error also occurred. Both individual- and hospital-level factors were associated with errors and complications. Women with Medicaid had increased odds of errors (OR: 1.40 (95%CI:1.37-1.43)) but lower odds of complications (OR: 0.89 (95%CI:0.88-0.90)), compared to women with private insurance. Compared to non-Hispanic white women, iii all races had lower odds of error, and only non-Hispanic black women had greater odds of complications (OR: 1.14 (95%CI:1.13-1.16)). Delivering prior to 37 weeks of gestation decreased the odds of errors (OR: 0.73 (95%CI:0.71-0.76)) and maternal complications (OR: 0.73 (95%CI:0.72-0.74)). Similarly, rural hospitals had lower odds of surgical errors (OR: 0.59 (95%CI: 0.56-0.62)) and complications (OR: 0.61 (95%CI: 0.59-0.62)) while hospitals with a large bed size had greater odds of errors and complications than medium bed size hospitals, at 1.13 (95%CI:1.09-1.17), and 1.13 (95%CI:1.11-1.15), respectively. Conclusions: This study identified specific risk factors for errors and complications that can be further examined through quality improvement frameworks to reduce the incidence of adverse maternal events during CS.
- ItemOpen AccessImpact of prenatal care provider on the use of ancillary health services during pregnancy(BioMed Central, 2013-03-11) Metcalfe, Amy; Grabowska, Kristen; Weller, Carol; Tough, Suzanne C
- ItemOpen AccessIntegrative health care – What are the relevant health outcomes from a practice perspective? A survey(2017-12-22) Kania-Richmond, Ania; Metcalfe, AmyAbstract Background Integrative health care (IHC) is an innovative approach to health care delivery. There is increasing focus on and demand for the evaluation of IHC practices. To ensure such evaluations capture their full scope, a clear understanding of the types of outcomes relevant to an IHC approach is needed. The objective was to describe the health domains and health outcomes relevant to IHC practices in Canada. Methods An online survey of Canadian IHC clinics. Survey questions were informed by the IN-CAM Health Outcomes Database. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Chi square tests were used to compare responses between clinic types and patient groups served. Results Surveys were completed by 21 clinics (response rate: 50%). Physical, psychological, social, individualized and holistic were identified as applicable health domains by more than 90% of the clinics. Spiritual domain was the least relevant (70% of clinics). A number of relevant outcomes within each domain were identified. A core set of outcomes were identified and included: fatigue, anxiety, stress, and patient-provider relationship, and quality of life. Clinics with primarily conventional health practitioners were less likely to address overall well-being (p = 0.04), while clinics that provided care to a specialized patient population (i.e. cancer patients) or a mix of general and specialized patients were less likely to address religious practices (p = 0.04) or spiritual experiences (p = 0.007). Conclusions Outcomes across health domains should be considered in the evaluation of IHC models to generate an understanding of the full scope of effectiveness of IHC approaches. The core set of outcomes identified may facilitate this task. Ethics approval (Ethics ID REB14-0495) was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary.
- ItemOpen AccessLaboratory Use in Individuals with Early-Onset versus Usual-Onset of Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study(2023-07) Sriskandarajah, Apishanthi; Butalia, Sonia; Metcalfe, Amy; Nerenberg, KaraBackground: The incidence and prevalence of diabetes is increasing in younger individuals and these individuals are at an increased risk of complications. Laboratory testing is used to screen and monitor for complications in people with diabetes, and there is concern that this is not being achieved as per clinical guidelines. The objective of this thesis was to describe the frequency and results of guideline recommended laboratory tests in individuals with early-onset (<40 years of age) and usual-onset diabetes (≥40 years of age), and to explore clinical and sociodemographic factors related to guideline concordance of frequency of testing and results. Methods: This observational, retrospective cohort study used population-based administrative and clinical databases in Alberta from 2018 to 2019. We included adults with incident diabetes (age ≥18 years) and stratified by age of onset (<40 years versus ≥40 years). Individuals were followed for a total of 365 days for glycated hemoglobin (A1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) tests. Descriptive statistics were used to compare laboratory testing between early-onset and usual-onset groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors related to guideline concordant testing frequency and above-target results. Results: Overall, the cohort included 23,643 individuals with incident diabetes (mean age 54.1 ± SD 15.4 years, 42.1% female). The early-onset group represented 18.9% of the cohort. A higher proportion of the early-onset group had lower frequency of testing for A1C, LDL-C, eGFR, and ACR tests and above-target test results for A1C and LDL-C compared to the usual-onset group. After adjustment of covariates (sex, socioeconomic status, rural residence, medication use), the early-onset group was more likely to have lower frequency of testing for A1C, LDL-C, and eGFR tests and above-target A1C and LDL-C levels compared to the usual-onset group. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were also associated with testing frequency and above-target test results. Conclusions: Despite a universal health care system, the early-onset group was not meeting clinical guidelines for testing frequency or targets. Future work is needed to inform tools and strategies to improve guideline recommended laboratory use in this group.
- ItemOpen AccessMental health outcomes of mothers who conceived using fertility treatment(BioMed Central, 2014-02-28) Raguz, Nikolett; McDonald, Sheila; Metcalfe, Amy; O'Quinn, Candace; Tough, Suzanne C
- ItemOpen AccessNeonatal respiratory morbidity following exposure to chorioamnionitis(2017-05-17) Metcalfe, Amy; Lisonkova, Sarka; Sabr, Yasser; Stritzke, Amelie; Joseph, KSAbstract Background There are conflicting results in the literature on the impact of chorioamnionitis on neonatal respiratory morbidities. However, most studies are based on small clinical samples and fail to account for the competing risk of perinatal death. This study aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis affects the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) after accounting for the increased risk of death. Methods Retrospective cohort study using linked birth and infant death registration and hospitalization records from Washington State between 2002 and 2011 (n = 763,671 singleton infants and n = 56,537 singleton preterm infants). Logistic regression models based on the traditional and fetuses-at-risk approaches were used to model two composite outcomes namely RDS and perinatal death and BPD and perinatal death. Confounders adjusted for in the models included maternal age, race, diabetes, hypertension, antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery and infant sex. Results While models using the traditional approach found a significant association only between chorioamnionitis and composite BPD and perinatal death (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01–1.50); using the fetuses-at-risk approach, there was a significant association between chorioamnionitis and both composite outcomes (RDS and perinatal death OR = 2.74, 2.50–3.01; BPD and perinatal death OR = 5.18, 95% CI: 4.39–6.11). Conclusion The fetuses-at-risk approach models the causal impact of chorioamnionitis on the development of the fetal lung and shows an increased risk of RDS, BPD and perinatal death associated with such maternal infection.
- ItemOpen AccessObstetrical provider knowledge and attitudes towards cell–free DNA screening: results of a cross-sectional national survey(2018-01-23) Chan, Wilson V; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Wilson, R. D; Metcalfe, AmyAbstract Background Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening has recently acquired tremendous attention, promising patients and healthcare providers a more accurate prenatal screen for aneuploidy than other current screening modalities. It is unclear how much knowledge regarding cfDNA screening obstetrical providers possess which has important implications for the quality and content of the informed consent patients receive. Methods A survey was designed to assess obstetrical provider knowledge and attitudes towards cfDNA screening and distributed online through the Society of Obstetricians & Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC). Chi-squared tests were used to detect differences in knowledge and attitudes between groups. Results 207 respondents completed the survey, composed of 60.6% Obstetricians/Gynecologists (OB/GYN), 15.4% Maternal Fetal Medicine (MFM) specialists, 16.5% General Practitioners (GP), and 7.5% Midwives (MW). MFM demonstrated a significant trend of being most knowledgeable about cfDNA screening followed by OB/GYN, GP, and lastly MW in almost all aspects of cfDNA screening. All groups demonstrated an overall positive attitude towards cfDNA screening; however, OB/GYN and MFM demonstrated a significantly more positive attitude than GP and MW. Despite not yet being a diagnostic test, 19.4% of GP would offer termination of pregnancy immediately following a positive cfDNA screen result compared to none of the MFM and only few OB/GYN or MW. Conclusions We have demonstrated that different types of obstetrical providers possess varying amounts of knowledge regarding cfDNA screening with MFM currently having greater knowledge to all other groups. All obstetrical providers must have adequate prenatal screening understanding so that we can embrace the benefits of this novel and promising technology while protecting the integrity of the informed consent process.
- ItemOpen AccessPregnant Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are More Likely to be Vitamin D Insufficient than Pregnant Women without IBD(2017) Lee, Sangmin; Seow, Cynthia H.; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Metcalfe, Amy; Raman, MaitreyiVitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Since individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency, studying vitamin D status in women with IBD is of importance as the peak incidence of IBD occurs between 18-35 years of age. Currently there is no literature that evaluates vitamin D status in pregnant women with IBD. Therefore, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant women with IBD was assessed. This study demonstrated that pregnant women with IBD are more likely to be vitamin D insufficient than those without IBD. Further, the current recommended daily dosage of vitamin D supplements for all pregnant women is not appropriate to achieve vitamin D sufficiency, particularly for those with IBD. Appropriate clinical practice guidelines for vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are needed for optimal prenatal care of pregnant women with IBD to improve their pregnancy outcomes.
- ItemOpen AccessProtocol for a rapid scoping review to examine child health and well-being indicator frameworks in OECD countries(2022-09-26) Roth, Christiane; Zwicker, Jennifer; Hagel, Brent; Boynton, Heather; Crowshoe, Lynden F.J.; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Exner-Cortens, Deneira; Metcalfe, Amy; Russell-Meyhew, Shelly; Schwartz, Kelly Dean; Thomas, Karen; Tough, SuzanneThe purpose of the rapid scoping review is to identify commonly recognized domains/dimension and indicators considered important to the measurement of child health and wellbeing of children and youth to inform the development of a wellbeing indicator framework. Understandings of the concept and importance of health and wellbeing has evolved in the recent decades to encompass wider determinants of health. The concept of wellbeing or quality of life in particular, has become increasingly relevant at the international and national policy levels as a measure for a country’s overall performance. Wellbeing or quality of life indicator frameworks can help monitor health and wellbeing over time in a given jurisdiction and guide the development of cross–sectoral wellbeing policies and strategies to improve overall wellbeing outcomes of the population. This protocol describes our approach to a scoping review, which will gather comprehensive data on how child health and wellbeing is defined and measured across the globe. The protocol is based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist, which will also guide its reporting. The scoping review will include peer-reviewed articles and information from a grey literature search of inter-governmental organizations and official documents of OECD countries. Data will be synthesized to showcase what child health and wellbeing is commonly comprised of (dimensions/domains/components) and which indicators and sources are used to measure the concept.
- ItemOpen AccessQuality improvement interventions to prevent unplanned extubations in pediatric critical care: a systematic review(2022-12-02) Wollny, Krista; Cui, Sara; McNeil, Deborah; Benzies, Karen; Parsons, Simon J.; Sajobi, Tolulope; Metcalfe, AmyAbstract Background An unplanned extubation is the uncontrolled and accidental removal of a breathing tube and is an important quality indicator in pediatric critical care. The objective of this review was to comprehensively synthesize literature published on quality improvement (QI) practices implemented to reduce the rate of unplanned extubations in critically ill children. Methods We included original, primary research on quality improvement interventions to reduce the rate of unplanned extubations in pediatric critical care. A search was conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and CINAHL from inception through April 29, 2021. Two reviewers independently screened citations in duplicate using pre-determined eligibility criteria. Data from included studies were abstracted using a tool created by the authors, and QI interventions were categorized using the Behavior Change Wheel. Vote counting based on the direct of effect was used to describe the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Improvement Minimum Quality Criteria Set (QI-MQCS). Results were presented as descriptive statistics and narrative syntheses. Results Thirteen studies were included in the final review. Eleven described primary QI projects; two were sustainability studies that followed up on previously described QI interventions. Under half of the included studies were rated as high-quality. The median number of QI interventions described by each study was 5 [IQR 4–5], with a focus on guidelines, environmental restructuring, education, training, and communication. Ten studies reported decreased unplanned extubation rates after the QI intervention; of these, seven had statistically significant reductions. Both sustainability studies observed increased rates that were not statistically significant. Conclusions This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of QI interventions to reduce unplanned extubation. With only half the studies achieving a high-quality rating, there is room for improvement when conducting and reporting research in this area. Findings from this review can be used to support clinical recommendations to prevent unplanned extubations, and support patient safety in pediatric critical care. Systematic review registration This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021252233) prior to data extraction.