Browsing Cumming School of Medicine by Department "Biochemistry and Moleculary Biology"
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- ItemOpen AccessAssembly of Ebola Virus Matrix Protein VP40 Is Regulated by Latch-Like Properties of N and C Terminal Tails(PLOS One, 2012-7-5) Silva, Leslie P.; Vanzile, Michael; Bavari, Sina; Aman, J. M. Javad; Schriemer, David C.The matrix protein VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These range from the regulation of viral transcription to morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. Similar to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, VP40 proceeds through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers) but it remains unclear how these intermediates are coordinated with the various stages of the life cycle. In this study, we investigate the molecular basis of synchronization as governed by VP40. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to follow induced structural and conformational changes in VP40. Together with computational modeling, we demonstrate that both extreme N and C terminal tail regions stabilize the monomeric state through a direct association. The tails appear to function as a latch, released upon a specific molecular trigger such as RNA ligation. We propose that triggered release of the tails permits the coordination of late-stage events in the viral life cycle, at the inner membrane of the host cell. Specifically, N-tail release exposes the L-domain motifs PTAP/PPEY to the transport and budding complexes, whereas triggered C-tail release could improve association with the site of budding.
- ItemMetadata onlyCharacterization of Staufenl ribonucleoproteins by mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses reveal the presence of diverse host proteins associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1(Frontiers in Microbiology, 2012-10-25) Milev, Miroslav; Ravichandran, Mukunthan; Khan, Morgan; Schriemer, David; Mouland, AndrewThe human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unspliced, 9 kb genomic RNA (vRNA) is exported from the nucleus for the synthesis of viral structural proteins and enzymes (Gag and Gag/Pol) and is then transported to sites of virus assembly where it is packaged into progeny virions. vRNA co-exists in the cytoplasm in the context of the HIV-1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that is currently defined by the presence of Gag and several host proteins including the double-stranded RNA-binding protein, Staufen1. In this study we isolated Staufen1 RNP complexes derived from HIV-1-expressing cells using tandem affinity purification and have identified multiple host protein components by mass spectrometry. Four viral proteins, including Gag, Gag/Pol, Env and Nef as well as >200 host proteins were identified in these RNPs. Moreover, HIV-1 induces both qualitative and quantitative differences in host protein content in these RNPs. 22% of Staufen1-associated factors are virion-associated suggesting that the RNP could be a vehicle to achieve this. In addition, we provide evidence on how HIV-1 modulates the composition of cytoplasmic Staufen1 RNPs. Biochemical fractionation by density gradient analyses revealed new facets on the assembly of Staufen1 RNPs. The assembly of dense Staufen1 RNPs that contain Gag and several host proteins were found to be entirely RNA-dependent but their assembly appeared to be independent of Gag expression. Gag-containing complexes fractionated into a lighter and another, more dense pool. Lastly, Staufen1 depletion studies demonstrated that the previously characterized Staufen1 HIV-1-dependent RNPs are most likely aggregates of smaller RNPs that accumulate at juxtanuclear domains. The molecular characterization of Staufen1 HIV-1 RNPs will offer important information on virus-host cell interactions and on the elucidation of the function of these RNPs for the transport of Gag and the fate of the unspliced vRNA in HIV-1-producing cells.
- ItemOpen AccessHydra: software for tailored processing of H/D exchange data from MS or tandem MS analyses(BMC Bioinformatics, 2009-5-27) Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Charles A. H.; Bozsa, Benjamin M.; Dang, Anthony; Percy, Andrew J.; Bennett, Melissa; Schriemer, David C.Background Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) experiments implemented to characterize protein interaction and protein folding generate large quantities of data. Organizing, processing and visualizing data requires an automated solution, particularly when accommodating new tandem mass spectrometry modes for H/DX measurement. We sought to develop software that offers flexibility in defining workflows so as to support exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data, with a particular focus on the analysis of very large protein systems and the mining of tandem mass spectrometry data. Results We present a software package ("Hydra") that supports both traditional and exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data. Hydra's software architecture tolerates flexible data analysis procedures by allowing the addition of new algorithms without significant change to the underlying code base. Convenient user interfaces ease the organization of raw data files and input of peptide data. After executing a user-defined workflow, extracted deuterium incorporation values can be visualized in tabular and graphical formats. Hydra also automates the extraction and visualization of deuterium distribution values. Manual validation and assessment of results is aided by an interface that aligns extracted ion chromatograms and mass spectra, while providing a means of rapidly reprocessing the data following manual adjustment. A unique feature of Hydra is the automated processing of tandem mass spectrometry data, demonstrated on a large test data set in which 40,000 deuterium incorporation values were extracted from replicate analysis of approximately 1000 fragment ions in one hour using a typical PC. Conclusion The customizable workflows and user-friendly interfaces of Hydra removes a significant bottleneck in processing and visualizing H/DX-MS data and helps the researcher spend more time executing new experiments and interpreting results. This increased efficiency will encourage the analysis of larger protein systems. The ability to accommodate the tandem MS dimension supports alternative data collection and analysis strategies, as well as higher resolution localization of deuteration where permitted by the fragmentation mechanism.
- ItemOpen AccessSpatial and temporal expression of the 23 murine Prolactin/Placental Lactogen-related genes is not associated with their position in the locus(BioMed Central, 2008-07-28) Simmons, David G; Rawn, Saara; Davies, Alastair; Hughes, Martha; Cross, James C.