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- ItemOpen Access1.5D Internal Multiple Prediction: an Application on Synthetic Data, Physical Modelling Data and Land Data Synthetics(2015-06-29) Pan, Pan; Innanen, KrisA 1.5D implementation of the inverse scattering series internal multiple prediction algorithm is investigated with the challenges of land seismic data application in mind. This method does not require any subsurface information and is suitable for situations where there is close interference between primaries and internal multiples; however, in land environments, issues of noise, coupling and statics have led to fewer reported successes. The methodology is also computationally costly, with the cost increasing dramatically as the implementation makes the transition from its 1D form to 1.5D, 2D and ultimately 3D. With these issues in mind, the algorithm is examined using a step-by-step approach: first, by carrying out synthetic examples; second, by testing physical modelling data; and finally, by operating on well log synthetics from land data. In the synthetic environment a study is undertaken to determine under what circumstances lower-dimension versions of the prediction algorithm can be applied to higher dimension problems to take advantage of the computational speed. The effects of various ϵ values are analyzed. A method to mitigate large-dip artifacts noticeable in unfiltered 1.5D internal multiple prediction is developed. Applicability of these ideas to real measurements taken in a physical modelling experiment, and using realistic synthetic data produced from real well logs is confirmed.
- ItemOpen Access12 Degrees of Alienation: A Socio-Political Exploration of Hanns Eisler's Use of the Twelve-Tone Method during Exile (1938-1948)(2020-07-07) Heidebrecht, Jennifer Leslie; Wagner, Martin; Süselbeck, Jan; Stark, TrevorHanns Eisler, one of Arnold Schoenberg’s prominent students and a master of his twelve-tone technique, is arguably one of the most important composers of the twentieth century. However, Eisler’s contribution to modern music in both Germany and North America has been, until recently, overshadowed by political controversy. It is especially the period of Eisler’s American exile (1938-1948) that provides an area of research ripe for investigation with a fresh perspective. This thesis will utilize Eisler’s writings about music, politics, and his experience as an exile, in selections from two volumes of collected essays (Musik und Politik Schriften), (1924-1962) and Composing for the Films (1947). These works incorporate Eisler’s theories regarding the relationship between music and the socio-political climate during this time and will be used in order to examine and qualify previously made theses that the twelve-tone method of composition is the musical language of émigrés. I seek to provide a more nuanced understanding that moves away from score analysis alone, synthesizing both of Eisler’s creative and political worlds in order to illuminate not only the composer, but also the exile and the unique role that the exile experience has played in the development of twelve-tone music.
- ItemOpen Access2D-3D Registration for a High-speed Biplanar Videoradiography Imaging System(2022-04) Zhang, Shu; Lichti, Derek; Detchev, Ivan; Ronsky, Janet; Wang, Ruisheng; Armenakis, Costas; Lichti, DerekHigh-Speed Biplanar Videoradiography (HSBV) is an X-ray based imaging system that can derive dynamic bony translations and rotations. The 2D-3D registration process matches a 3D bone model acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans with the 2D X-ray image pairs. 2D-3D registration is usually conducted in two ways, marker-based and model-based registration. The marker-based method is known for its high registration accuracy thanks to corresponding marker pairs. On the other hand, the model-based method avoids the implantation of radiopaque beads but uses the radiograph’s features, intensities, or gradients to accomplish the data alignment. Two novel marker-based registration methods, the back-projection and the projection methods, were proposed and compared with the state-of-the-art RSA (Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis) method. A 3D printed bone model with beads was used to validate the proposed methods. The results showed that both methods acquired higher accuracy than the RSA method. In addition, the projection and back-projection techniques can be used for the model-based registration while the RSA method cannot. The projection method was applied to a model-based registration to achieve higher accuracy, providing a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 0.79 mm for both the tibia and femur. By using the non-rigid transformation with a scale factor, this accuracy was successfully increased to 0.56 mm for the tibia and 0.64 mm for the femur. The discrepancies in the 2D-3D registration that led to the non-rigid transformation were validated. It was caused by the offset between the detected edge points in the radiographs and their actual position. A Kalman filter was tested on the marker- and model-based registration results with different random processes and parameters. For marker-based registrations, the standard deviations of the kinematics parameters were improved by 25 – 62% for the translations and 35 – 43% for the rotations. For the model-based registration, these standard deviations were improved by 6 – 38% and 29 – 38%, respectively. While the projection method provided higher accuracy, the back-projection method had the larger capture range for the initialization. An automatic initialization method with 64 starting poses based on the back-projection method was proposed and validated. It successfully eliminated the user intervention in the registration initialization. The improved 2D-3D registration with non-rigid transformation and dynamic estimation allows the determination of accurate 3D kinematic parameters with high efficiency. These kinematic parameters can be used to calculate joint cartilage contact mechanics that provide insight into the mechanical processes and mechanisms of joint degeneration or pathology.
- ItemOpen Access<3 An Artistic Exploration of Contemporary Online Courtship(2021-10-08) Housego, Kenzie; Eiserman, Jennifer Roam Flint; Leier, Heather; Hardy, Michelle Arlene; Viczko, April A.This paper traces how my multi-media art practice explores contemporary courtship by investigating past and present modes of behaviour related to dating rituals. By using a research-creation methodological approach, my textile-based practice combines technological components to engage audiences in a dialogue with artworks based on gathered experiences of love and dating online. This body of work investigates the conveyed meanings of emojis, texts, and sexts, while juxtaposing historical and contemporary visual symbology to draw parallels or find differences between methods of signalling attraction through display. This study seeks to highlight how romantic communication, conducted and transmitted via screens and on digital platforms, can be interpreted or misinterpreted between potential partners. Given that romantic exchanges in digital culture are therefore processed through technology and appear as symbols and codes which may or may not be successfully communicated, I aim to understand this phenomenon through created experiences which examine facets of 21st century courtship. Contemporary online courtship employs new and unprecedented mechanisms for connecting with potential romantic partners, theoretically enhancing the chance of finding true love (if that is the goal). This paper details the development of ❤️❤️❤️, a five part series of investigatory electronic and textile new media artworks that analyze digital courtship behaviours, probing their historical Victorian-era roots, while examining how they both break from these traditions and reinvent contemporary online dating romance. The combination of historical and contemporary, symbolically-laden, modes of visual communication uncover various facets of 21st century romance including: its relationship to technology, online self-representation, communication, gender tropes, and historical and contemporary signs and signifiers connected to notions of romance and courtship texts. These artworks leverage technology through embedded electronic sensors, LED light displays, and texting with programmed artwork chatbots. The audience is invited to engage with the artworks in a dialectical relationship. The outcome of this audience participation is intended to produce a deeper understanding of contemporary dating through a relational approach via these technological tools. Viewers shift from passive observers of the artworks to active co-producers as they utilize digital media to express their ideas while experiencing other points of view, and ultimately, form their own individual meanings.
- ItemOpen Access3-D Cadastral Boundary Relationship Classification Algorithms using Conformal Geometric Algebra(2021-04-26) Pullano, Dillon; Barry, Michael; Wang, Xin; O'Keefe, Kyle; Detchev, Ivan; Barry, Michael; Wang, Xin; Rangelova, ElenaAs urban centers continue to grow and develop, there is an increasing need for institutions to be able to digitally model and perform relationship analysis on 3-D cadastral boundary data. 3-D boundary analysis can be performed through visual inspection of survey plan drawings, but this often requires professional expertise such as a land surveyor or lawyer. This study examined the development, testing, and application of methodological processes and algorithms that were designed to classify various geometrical and topological relationships between the boundary components of two 3-D cadastral units to solve cadastral boundary problems. It applied established mathematical theory using Conformal Geometric Algebra objects and operational techniques, in combination with various 3-D point-point distance evaluations and geometric concepts to the classification of relationships between 3-D cadastral boundaries. A literature search suggests that the theory and methodology as it was applied in this study have not been used to classify topological relationships between 3-D cadastral boundaries elsewhere. Six sets of data flow processing algorithms were developed to determine the relationship classifications between boundary component pair sets that exist between two 3-D cadastral units. The classification processes were first validated using seven simulated experimental testing datasets, each consisting of two cube-like units. The classification processes were then applied to a cadastral dataset that was derived from a condominium survey plan registered in Alberta, Canada. This showed how the methods developed here can be applied to solving a practical 3-D cadastral boundary problem example in the land surveying field, specifically towards validating a shared boundary between two adjacent condominium units as is intended on the plan before survey plan registration. Results from the experimental datasets support the methods that were proposed to classify 53 distinct types of topological relationships between 3-D boundary component pair sets. While this type of boundary relationship analysis can be done through visual inspection of survey plans, the methods developed here are more mathematically rigorous. These processes could be leveraged by land surveyors and land administration professionals when analyzing 3-D survey plan boundaries.
- ItemOpen Access300-1500 MHz Broadband LNA for the Canadian Hydrogen Observatory and Radio-transient Detector(2022-09) Lai, Carlson; Belostotski, Leonid; Nielsen, Jorgen; Abou-Zeid, HatemA next generation radio telescope, CHORD is currently being designed and prototyped. This new radio telescope is designed to supersede the CHIME telescope in area, noise and bandwidth. The specifications for this telescope require a bandwidth between 300 MHz to 1500 MHz, along with the lowest possible noise figure at room temperature. To achieve this, a new LNA topology is proposed using a capacitively loaded source degenerated amplifier with a matching network. This topology allows the designer to control the optimum source impedance for low noise independently from the input impedance, such that the two can be conjugates of each other. A matching network is then proposed to approximate the optimum source impedance for broadband power and noise matching. The LNA was designed and measured, with S11 below -8 dB between 320 MHz to 1580 MHz, S21 of 32 dB +/- 1.2 dB, IP1dB greater than -37 dBm, and IIP3 greater than -20 dBm. Noise parameters were measured, with the LNA achieving sub-20 K noise temperatures between 500 MHz to 1400 MHz.
- ItemOpen Access3D Building Model-Assisted Snapshot GNSS Positioning Method(2017) Kumar, Rakesh; Petovello, Mark; Petovello, Mark; Lachapelle, Gérard; O'Keefe, Kyle; Fapojuwo, AbrahamGlobal Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have proven to be a viable and reliable solution in interference-free environments and in presence of Line-of-Sight (LOS) signals only. However, in urban canyons, multipath signals directly affect the pseudorange measurements resulting in degraded positioning performance of traditional GNSS receivers. Moreover, traditional GNSS receivers cannot distinguish between non-LOS (NLOS) and LOS signals, resulting in even worse performance if the receiver tracks NLOS-only signal. Hence, NLOS and multipath signals remains a dominant source of error in satellite-based navigation. Most of the existing research has focused on identifying and rejecting NLOS measurements. However, little research has used NLOS signals constructively. In this regard, this research uses snapshots of GNSS data in order to estimate position, utilizing all NLOS signals constructively with the help of a 3D Building Model (3DBM). Using a 3DBM and a ray-tracing algorithm, the number of reception paths and the corresponding path delays of reflected signals is predicted across a grid of candidate positions. These predictions are then used to compute least-squares fit to the GNSS receiver’s correlator outputs and the position with smallest residuals is selected as the position estimate. This approach is termed Signal Delay Matching (SDM) and yields a solution that is nearly unaffected by traditional GNSS error sources, and has capability of providing a position solution using a single satellite only. The use of snapshots of data mean the receiver need not perform tracking operations, thus making it easier to implement and power efficient. The feasibility and performance of the algorithm was tested using data collected in downtown Calgary, Canada, where buildings reach heights of over 200 m. Contrary to traditional approaches, results for the proposed method show that positioning error decreases as sky-visibility decreases. For sky-visibility below 20%, the median error was found to be just over 3 m. Compared to two pseudorange-based receivers, the proposed method yields RMS errors improvements of 22% to 48% in the horizontal plane.
- ItemOpen Access3D data interpolation and denoising by an adaptive weighting rank-reduction method using singular spectrum analysis(2022-01) Bayati, Farzaneh; Trad, Daniel Osvaldo; Ferguson, Robert James; Innanen, Kristopher; Lamoureux, Michael PhilipA difficult challenge in seismic processing and imaging is to address insufficient and irregular sampling. Most processing algorithms require well-sampled data, which involves small sampling intervals with a regular distribution. This motivates us to find new techniques that are more efficient in interpolating seismic data. The primary objective of this thesis is to study Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) as a tool for the reconstruction and denoising of seismic data. An overview of the methods of seismic interpolation and the potential use of SSA in time series is described. SSA as a rank-reduction method for 2-D and 3-D seismic data interpolation is studied. The rank-reduction step of SSA is improved by proposing an adaptive rank-reduction method. To improve the algorithm in denoising an adaptive weighting rank-reduction algorithm is proposed. SSA is compared with the Minimum Weighted Norm Interpolation (MWNI) algorithm. Results obtained in this work demonstrate that SSA is a promising method for simultaneous denoising and reconstructing seismic data.
- ItemOpen Access3D Geologic Mapping and Characterization Using Digital Outcrop Models Generated from Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry(2020-07-17) Nesbit, Paul Ryan; Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Hubbard, Stephen M.; Sjogren, Darren BoydOutcrops are a primary source of geologic information and key in developing knowledge for teaching, training, and research. Observations from outcrop exposures provide opportunities to directly characterize detailed sedimentological composition, architectural characteristics, and link observations across various scales. Conventional field mapping techniques have remained largely unchanged for the past two centuries and are commonly limited in their ability to quantitatively constrain measurements, extend observations laterally, and document features at multiple scales. Recently, technological advances in uninhabited/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have prompted wide use in various geoscience disciplines to supplement field data with quantifiable digital information. However, application of UAVs to geologic mapping has been limited, due to unique challenges in data collection, processing, analysis, and visualization predominantly associated with intricate 3D exposures in complex topographic settings. This dissertation is focused on detailed investigation of 3D mapping, analysis, and dissemination from UAV-derived digital outcrop models (DOMs) that can potentially provide multi-scale perspectives and quantitative measurements that were previously difficult, or impossible to achieve with conventional field methods alone.
- ItemOpen Access3D Geological Modeling from Concept Sketches and Annotations(2017) Mendonça Amorim, Ronan; Costa Sousa, Mário; Famil Samavati, Faramarz; Eaton, David W. S.; Sharlin, Ehud; Katz, Larry; Mould, DavidDuring the early stages of any design project, specialists explore and refine ideas collaboratively by constructing conceptual models through hand-drawn sketches and renderings. The resulting models are then used to make decisions before moving to the detailed design phase of development. Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (SBIM) is an area of research devoted to the development of computational tools to aid in this prototyping process. The main goal of SBIM is to construct models directly from hand-drawn sketches, leveraging the sketching skills of experts in different domains such as art, science, and engineering. In this thesis, I investigate the theory and practice of concept sketching applied to the problem of constructing conceptual models of geological structures describing subsurface environments. Geological models describe the disposition, geometry, and types of rocks in the subsurface, and are critical to a wide range of applications, such as oil/gas exploration. Current subsurface modeling workflows lack more interpretive and interactive modeling tools, which could enable experts to rapidly construct a variety of digital conceptual geological models directly from their interpretation sketches. In this thesis, I am addressing fundamental research in SBIM motivated by the challenges of constructing conceptual geological models from 2D hand-drawn sketches. This thesis explores the use of SBIM to complement existing geological modeling tools with more interpretive and interactive methods, with the goal of expediting the construction of concept geological structures described at the early stages of subsurface modeling. To this end, two new SBIM methods are proposed: (1) Geo-Editor aims to enable experts to more easily and rapidly edit/augment existing geological surfaces, using sketches directly in 3D with/without geological data. (2) Geo-Sketcher complements the previous approach by allowing the rapid construction of conceptual geological models from a blank-screen environment using rule-based SBIM. It leverages the standard language provided by geological and topographic maps to provide experts with a familiar notation for sketching. The results and feedback from domain experts demonstrate that the proposed methods can significantly reduce the time necessary to create or edit 3D geological models.
- ItemOpen Access3D Geomechanical Modeling of Shale Formations and its Application in Borehole Stabilization(2021-06-09) Deng, Liyu; Chen, Zhangxing; Hu, Jinguang; Almao, Pedro R PereiraThe issue of borehole instability as seen in shale formation drilling is a major problem currently facing the industry. In recent years, deep exploration and more intensive development of hard and brittle shale gas reservoirs has shown that borehole instability is a widely occurring issue present in this type of strata. Because of the high frequency of catastrophic failures that accompany drilling in shale, this is an important technical problem to be solved. Furthermore, as a result of the recent shale gas revolution in North America, there has been a focus on integrated innovations and the development of multi-disciplinary fields and multiple technologies related to exploitation of this resource. As part of this ongoing multi-disciplinary approach, the advanced development concept known as geological engineering integration has been put forward. Rooted in the study of geodynamics and aimed at the problem of borehole instability in shale formations, this study explores and develops concepts related to geomechanics, including well location optimization, well trajectory optimization, pre-drilling formation pressure prediction and well wall stability prediction techniques. The meticulous modeling of 3D geomechanics is of great significance to the study of regional borehole stability in a shale formation. Therefore, a geomechanical modeling method for shale formations and its field application in Indonesia's Oilfield A is demonstrated in this thesis. As part of this modeling, a detailed study on the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of shale in Oilfield A is carried out by laboratory mineral analysis, electron microscopy, cation exchange capacity and rock mechanics parameters. These experimental results form the cornerstone of the 3D geomechanical modeling of Indonesia's Oilfield A. Leveraging the Petrel software platform, the 3D geomechanical modeling method and principles of a shale formation are introduced in detail. Through a series of core tests, well logging data and seismic inversion data, the mechanical parameters of Oilfield A are described in depth, and the spatial distributions of important parameters such as 3D elastic modulus, 3D Poisson’s ratio and 3D pore pressure in this oilfield are established. 3D geomechanical models of heterogeneity, porosity and elastoplastic features are also established. Using the finite element method, the 3D stress distributions and 3D safe density windows of Oilfield A are also calculated. By establishing a 3D fine geomechanical model, various attributes are extracted along the borehole trajectory of well A-10, and a prediction of borehole stability is carried out. The drilling fluid density windows and well depth structure are also recommended, indicating the type and approximate depth of possible downhole complications. The numerical results of the minimum in-situ stress present in Indonesia's Oilfield A are calibrated by LOT (leaking of test) data. Importantly, the relative errors that exist between LOT data and the minimum in-situ stress are small, and the maximum relative error is only 0.02. The drilling period of well A-10 is 28 days. Compared with the average drilling period of 55 days in Oilfield A, the drilling period is shortened by 49 days as a result of the modeling studied. Importantly, no complex accidents occur in the drilling process. Through direct or indirect validations of all established 3D pore pressure, collapse pressure, rupture pressure, in situ-stress and other models, both a confident geomechanical model and a density window model are finally determined. The results show that the geomechanical model can accurately reflect the magnitude and heterogeneity of in-situ stress in a shale formation and can effectively solve the problem of regional borehole stability found in this formation.
- ItemOpen Access3D Indoor Mobile Mapping using Multi-Sensor Autonomous Robot(2015-10-01) Mostofi, Navid; El-Sheimy, NaserAutonomous indoor mobile mapping has opened up new horizon in the field of surveying and mapping industry. The ability to create a 3D map without user intervention not only reduces labour costs but also provides more flexibility for exploring remote sites. Hence, it is worthwhile to consider the role of robotics in the mapping industry. The primary demand for autonomous robot systems is to interact with environment for obstacle avoidance and self-localization in six degrees of freedom (x-, y-, z-position, roll, yaw and pitch angle). The later issue requires knowledge of the operating environment, which leads to automatic environment modeling or environment mapping solution. Two different scenarios for autonomous indoor mobile mapping are investigated in this thesis. The first scenario is based on the use of a single RGB-D sensor to map a small room of size (8x8 meter). In the second scenario RGB-D sensor is used as an aiding sensor for Velodyne HDL-32 LiDAR to map a large corridor of size (33x11 meter). The results shows that the solution of single RGB-D sensor is accurate enough for mapping a small room; however, for large corridor the result of RGB-D aided Velodyne HDL-32 generated more accurate and consistent mapping solution. The main challenge that should be handled for autonomous mapping is alignment of multiple local scans as they become locally distorted because of the motion of the platform and noise in sensor measurements. The collected scans from multiple locations are associated with the individual sensor locations (the capturing process is done using stop-and-go approach, where the robot is stopped at different locations to capture the scene). Hence, a registration process must be performed in order to combine several scans at different locations. The main goal of the registration process is to estimate the transformation parameters, which will define the relation between the collected datasets from different locations. The optimization and enhancement of the registration procedure plays a major role for generating indoor mobile mapping solution. The problem of alignment is addressed through several optimization steps, starting from coarse registration, followed by fine registration, segmentation and finally loops closure.
- ItemOpen Access3D Modeling of Fracturing and Refracturing in Unconventional Reservoirs(2019-09-20) Urban Rascón, Edgar; Aguilera, Roberto; Aguilera, Roberto; Kantzas, Apostolos K.; Moore, Robert Gordon Gord; Mehta, Sudarshan A. Raj; Lines, Larry R.; Camacho, Rodolfo C. V.Unconventional gas reservoirs considered in this thesis include low and ultralow permeability shales and tight reservoirs. Gas production from unconventional reservoirs has grown dramatically in the United States during the last decade and has helped that country to become a top gas producer around the world. Extensive use of natural gas has in turn reduced CO2 emissions to levels not seen in the United States since the 1990s. This has happened due to innovations associated with two main technologies: (1) Drilling of horizontal wells and (2) multistage hydraulic fracturing. This success in the United States has inspired the primary objective of this thesis: Finding means of improving gas rates and recoveries by fracturing and refracturing unconventional reservoirs. To this end, the thesis presents the development of an original 3D fracture propagation model that helps to understand hydraulic fractures and their growth in unconventional reservoirs. Results from the 3D fracture propagation model are calibrated with microseismic data and are used in (1) an original hybrid hydraulic fracture (HHF) simulation model for estimating stimulated reservoir volume (SRV), (2) reservoir modeling with a fully coupled HHF-geomechanics model, and (3) a comparison of refracturing vs. infill drilling. The thesis closes with an evaluation that discusses the economic aspects of refracturing. It is concluded that the fracture propagation model developed in this thesis provides valuable information regarding fracturing and refracturing of unconventional reservoirs. Furthermore, it generates useful input data for fluid flow simulations, and improvements in production rates and recoveries of natural gas from unconventional tight and shale reservoirs.
- ItemOpen Access3D printing in Clinical Diagnostics: A Versatile Tool to Develop Testing Devices for the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases(2023-01-05) Aburashed, Raied; Sanati Nezhad, Amir; Lewis, Ian; Kim, Seonghwan; Murari, Kartikeya3D printing (3DP) has recently emerged as an advanced manufacturing technology in the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. 3DP has virtually become a synonym for rapid prototyping. The ease of use and low cost of in-house 3D printing has also revolutionized product development, and many manufacturers of medical tools have adopted the technology to produce brand-new medical devices and surgical instruments. 3DP allows for a fast feedback loop which accelerates design development; designers and manufacturers can rely on the use of early 3D printed parts to support clinical trials or early commercialization while the final design is still being optimized. This relationship was crucial in support of enhanced health care and general emergency response, as shown during the COVID-19 pandemic. A few examples where 3DP technologies were used to validate product efficacy include 3DP nasal pharyngeal swabs, multiplexing of bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) machines to support multiple patients, patient-specific dental moulding, and antigen testing kits for COVID-19. In this dissertation, I show the versatility of 3D printing within the infectious disease workflow. Firstly, I demonstrate the use of 3D printing in patient sample collection through the development of a novel 3D manufacturing and efficacy validation for nasal pharyngeal (NP) swabs. With the aim to develop a swab (a) 3D printed with complex tip structures for enhanced sample collection efficacy, eliminating the need to apply flocks at the tips (b) scalability with a network of 3D printing capacity in biomedical devices and biocompatible material applications, and (c) ability to rapidly iterate prototypes quickly and effectively without incurring costs of machining moulds for injection moulding. In the following chapter, I discuss the importance and use of rapid manufacturing techniques to develop diagnostic assay kits for various diseases; predominantly in the development of point-of-care (POC) devices through the combination of microfluidic and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). 3DP techniques can be utilized to develop various fluidic systems to streamline laboratory testing methodologies. I explore the development of a centrifugal microfluidic platform and the manufacturability of various centrifugal fluidic systems within the limitation of 3DP. This work aims to provide the building blocks of the 3D printing of various centrifugal microfluidic modules and establishes a proof-of-concept AST platform for bloodstream infections by sensing and monitoring the growth and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli. Finally, I show the utility of 3DP in clinical diagnostics through the rapid development of a custom 96-well plate platform; microbial containment device (MCD) and software package FUGU-MS – Filtering Utility for Grouping untargeted mass spectrometry data and open-source software tool to compliment the metabolic data acquired via the MCD. The 3D printed MCD that allows water-soluble metabolites to diffuse from a microbial culture well into a bacteria-free well through a semi-permeable membrane, which allows for streamline sample processing for clinical diagnostics of bloodstream infections. The MCD validated through the analysis of the metabolic flux to identify different strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus following a 4-hour incubation period of various bloodstream and urinary tract pathogens and direct sampling onto a Q Exactive HF Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer.
- ItemOpen Access3D Reconstruction of Building Interiors Using Point Clouds(2018-04-24) Xie, Lei; Wang, Ruisheng; Shahbazi, Mozhdeh; Hassan, QuaziThe automatic modeling of as-built building interiors, known as indoor building reconstruction, is gaining increasing attention because of its widespread applications. With the development of sensors to acquire high-quality point clouds, a new modeling scheme called scan-to-BIM (building information modeling) emerged. However, the traditional scan-to-BIM process is time tedious and labor intensive. Most existing automatic indoor building reconstruction solutions can only fit the specific data or lack of detailed model representation. In this thesis, we propose two automatic reconstruction methods from 2D linear primitives and 3D planar primitives respectively, to create 2D floor plans and 3D building models. The approach using 2D primitives is well suited for large-scale point clouds through a decomposition-and-reconstruction strategy. Moreover, it can retrieve semantic information of rooms and doors simultaneously. Another method using 3D primitives can deal with different types of point clouds and retain as much as structural details with respect to protruding structures, complicated ceilings, and fine corners. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of proposed methods and the robustness against noises and downsampling.
- ItemOpen Access3km Track Time Trial Performance in Cross-Country Skiers After a High Intensity Training Session(2020-06-12) Winegarden, Anneke I; Doyle-Baker, Patricia; Passfield, Louis; Lebrun, ConstanceMen and women have different morphology and physiology that lead to sex differences in performance and fatigability. Although women continue to increase their participation and performance in sport, the research used to guide training principles has been heavily reliant on male athletes. One reason a woman s physiology differs is because of the fluctuating hormones throughout the menstrual cycle. Estrogen and progesterone, are hormones known to influence metabolism as well as basal body temperature regulation, potentially impacting a women s training, performance and fatigue. Race-specific performance can be effectively measured by time-trials, and time trial (TT) performance is influenced by pacing strategy. Pacing strategy is a learned skill and less experienced athletes are likely to have a variable pacing strategy which may reduce performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sex, menstrual cycle phase, age and pacing strategies on 3km track TT performance after a high intensity interval training (HIIT) session in cross-country (XC) skiers. Thirty female and nine male XC skiers completed 3 days of testing/training: a 3km track TT on Day 1 (pre-HIIT) and Day 3 (post-HIIT), and a HIIT session composed of 4-8x 800m on Day 2. An overall improvement in performance from pre- to post-HIIT TTs was observed (p<0.01). Significant differences were not observed in TT performance after HIIT between sexes (p=0.16) or menstrual cycle phases (p=0.26). There was a trend for greater improvement in TT performance after HIIT in younger (u18) athletes compared to older (18+) athletes (p=0.06). Pacing strategy of u18 athletes did not differ between those who did or did not improve their performance, although all u18 athletes improved pacing strategy in the Post-HIIT TT. Most 18+ athletes did not improve pacing strategy; however, those who did were significantly more likely to also improve their TT performance.
- ItemOpen Access400-to-800MHz Low-Noise Amplifier for Radio Astronomy(2018-04-25) Kulatunga, Thisara; Belostotski, Leonid; Haslett, James; Nielsen, Jorgen; Landecker, Thomas; Belostotski, Leonid; Haslett, JamesThe Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory is interested in investigating the possibility of replacing 408 MHz narrow-band feed antennas with wide-band antennas. Such change would require low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), which would operate over a wider frequency band. This thesis explores the feasibility of using GaAs p-HEMT transistors to implement a wide-band low-noise amplifier for the 400 MHz to 800 MHz frequencies for use in a wide-band antenna array. In order to demonstrate the feasibility, a three-stage cascaded low-noise amplifier was developed and experimentally verified. The GaAs p-HEMT LNA achieves a sub 0.36dB noise figure in the 390MHz to 810MHz frequency region and a beam-equivalent receiver noise temperature of 17.8K to 28.3K within the 390 MHz-to-810MHz frequency region. The LNA demonstrates S21 > 41.1 dB within the 400 MHz-to-800MHz frequency region while consuming 406mW of power. This LNA has P1dB> -32.9 dBm and IIP3 > -22.5 dBm within the frequency region.
- ItemOpen Access404 NOT FOUND(2018-09-14) Sun, Xiaoyu; Cahill, Susan; Gadbois, Denis; Hogan, Mél404 NOT FOUND addresses an arts-based studio practice exploring how data and technology quantify and surveil the self. Specifically, in this paper, I outline my creative research practice and my interest in using my own body as a subject to create artworks that explore the expansive reach, as well as the limitations, of surveillance. This thesis support paper follows a chronological trajectory that traces my art practice throughout the two years of my MFA programme. My creative research started from using animation entitled Black Quantified-self, as a vehicle to engage with the concept of the “quantified-self.” I created a series of hand-drawn animations to discuss the pros and cons of “quantified-self.” Then, I connected “quantified-self” with big data, and created an installation called Seeing Yourself through Technology with my photos and self-portraits. In addition, I expanded the topic into large notions of surveillance, and created two videos, The Blue Pill and We Are Walled.
- ItemOpen Access5-year-olds' Use of Disfluency and Speaker Identity in Referential Communication(2015-08-05) Thacker, Justine; Graham, SusanFilled pauses, once thought to be an extraneous aspect of language, play an important role in communication by serving as a signal of speaker difficulty. If children can make such attributions, then their interpretation of filled pauses should be speaker-specific. Using an eye-tracking paradigm, listeners were introduced to two characters with gender-typed colour preferences. These characters instructed children to look at pink or blue objects in a display using fluent (“Look at the X”) and disfluent (“Look at thee, uh, X”) instructions. Experiment 1indicated that 5-year-olds did not make any referential predictions. With the addition of filler trials, Experiment 2 indicated that 5-year-olds and adults anticipated reference to gender-typed objects during the baseline interval (“Look at”), and disfluent instructions led listeners to amend this prediction. These results suggest that children use disfluency as a marker to adjust their speaker-specific referential predictions.
- ItemOpen Access59 Glass Bridges: A Novel(2014-05-21) Peters, Steven; Mayr, Suzette59 Glass Bridges is a novel chronicling a man's attempt to navigate a labyrinth. Unfortunately, the labyrinth does not lend itself to logic: it is full of looping corridors, winding rivers, and bridges leading on into yet more mazes. As he wanders, the labyrinth warps itself to reflect his adolescent memories, adopting features reminiscent of the wood bordering his grandparent's estate, his childhood bedroom, and even a funeral home. Soon, however, the maze turns sinister. A boatman steers the man across a turgid river, a ghost leads him through a forest barbed with thorny vines, and alone he climbs a mountain of ice in which countless bodies are frozen. 59 Glass Bridges uses these scenes to explore its relationship with another text, Dante Alighieri's Inferno. Through explicit reference and intertextual allusion, 59 Glass Bridges highlights the interdependence of texts and the evolution of textual interpretation since Inferno's publication.