Browsing Arts by Title
Now showing 1 - 20 of 451
Results Per Page
- ItemOpen Access12-month-olds' phonotactic knowledge guides their word-object mappings(Society for Research In Child Development, 2012-01) MacKenzie, Heather K.; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, SusanThis study examined whether 12-month-olds will accept words that differ phonologically and phonetically from their native language as object labels in an associative learning task. Sixty infants were presented with sets of English word-object (N = 30), Japanese word-object (N = 15), or Czech word-object (N = 15) pairings until they habituated. Infants associated CVCV English, CCVC English, and CVCV Japanese words, but not CCVC Czech words, with novel objects. These results demonstrate that by 12 months of age, infants are beginning to apply their language-specific knowledge to their acceptance of word forms. That is, they will not map words that violate the phonotactics of their native language to objects.
- ItemOpen Access14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task(Frontiers Media S.A., 2017-01) Switzer, Jessica L.; Graham, Susan A.We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants' reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., "Look at this one") and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug). Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.
- ItemOpen Access24-Month-Olds' Selective Learning Is Not an All-or-None Phenomenon(2015-06) Henderson, Annette M. E.; Graham, Susan; Schell, VanessaEvidence that children maintain some memories of labels that are unlikely to be shared by the broader linguistic community suggests that children's selective learning is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Across three experiments, we examine the contexts in which 24-month-olds show selective learning and whether they adjust their selective learning if provided with cues of in-context relevance. In each experiment, toddlers were first familiarized with a source who acted on familiar objects in either typical or atypical ways (e.g., used a car to mimic driving or hop like a rabbit) or labeled familiar objects incorrectly (e.g., called a spoon a "brush"). The source then labeled unfamiliar objects using either a novel word (e.g., fep; Experiment 1) or sound (e.g., ring; Experiments 2 and 3). Results indicated that toddlers learnt words from the typical source but not from the atypical or inaccurate source. In contrast, toddlers extended sound labels only when a source who had previously acted atypically provided the sound labels. Thus, toddlers, like preschoolers, avoid forming semantic representations of new object labels that are unlikely to be relevant in the broader community, but will form event-based memories of such labels if they have reason to suspect such labels will have in-context relevance.
- ItemOpen AccessA Feminist-Driven Computational Urban Design Framework for Mapping Gender-Inclusive Urban Places(Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computational Urban Planning and Urban Management (CUPUM 2023), 2023-07-14) Falahatkar, Hawjin. Fast, Victoria.A significant hurdle to employing data-driven and computational methods in urban design for people-place relation analysis is when the research is driven not by in-depth knowledge and theory of the field, but by data, which could lead to data autocracy. This paper aims to develop a feminist-driven framework for computational urban design to map, measure, and analyze gender-inclusive features of urban places. The framework suggests that data requirements for a computational urban design assessment need to be initially determined from domain theory patterns. The results demonstrate that the integration of multi-type, multi-scale, and multi-source datasets is needed to address all gender-inclusive features of urban places. Finally, we conclude that by adopting a theory-driven approach, it is possible to define a research system through which the re-searcher can control the data flow, guide the research path, and benefit from opportunities of geospatial big data and data-driven methods for conducting computational urban design.
- ItemOpen AccessAbility, Frankfurt Examples, and Obligation(Springer, 2018-04-21) Haji, Ishtiyaque; Hebert, RyanFrankfurt examples invite controversy over whether the pertinent agent in these examples lacks the specific (as opposed to the general) ability to do otherwise, and whether what she does can be obligatory or permissible. We develop an account of ability that implies that this agent does not have the specific ability to refrain from performing the germane action. The account also undergirds a view of obligation that entails that it is morally required or prohibited for an agent to perform an action only if she has the specific ability to do, and to do otherwise than, perform it. Therefore, in Frankfurt examples, it is neither obligatory nor impermissible for the relevant agent to do what she does.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess to primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in Canada: a geographic analysis(Open Journal Systems, 2010-02-02) Patel, Alka B; Tu, Jack V; Waters, Nigel; Ko, Dennis T; Eisenberg, Mark J; Huynh, Thao; Rinfret, Stéphane; Knudtson, Merril; Ghali, William A
- ItemOpen AccessAcknowledgement of Graduate and Undergraduate ContributorsOsborne Project Team
- ItemOpen Accessaction items to preserve endangered Canadian hydrocarbons(2009) Battler, Lesley
- ItemOpen AccessActivation of M1/4 receptors phase advances the hamster circadian clock during the day(Elsevier, 2016-05-16) Basu, Priyoneel; Wensel, Adrienne L; McKibbon, Reid; Lefebvre, Nicole; Antle, Michael CThe mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) can be reset by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. In hamsters, intraSCN carbachol produces phase advances during the day. This phenomenon has previously been attributed to the muscarinic receptors, as carbachol-induced phase shifts are blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic antagonist atropine. The SCN contains all five muscarinic receptors, leaving open the question as to which muscarinic receptors mediate these shifts. Here we test two selective muscarinic agonists, the M1/4 agonist McN-A-343 and the M2/3 agonist bethanechol, in addition to the non-selective cholinergic agonist carbachol. Consistent with previous reports, carbachol produced significant phase advances when injected to the SCN during the mid-subjective day. At the doses used here, McN-A-343, but not bethanechol, also produced significant phase shifts when injected to the SCN during the mid-subjective day. Phase shifts to McN-A-343 were as large as those produced by carbachol, suggesting that activation of the M1/4 receptors alone can fully account for the daytime phase advances produced by cholinergic agonists. Given acetylcholine’s role in arousal, and the similarity between phase advances to carbachol/McN-A-343 and to exercise and arousal manipulations, it is possible that acetylcholine may contribute to non-photic resetting of the circadian clock.
- ItemOpen AccessAdvanced overview of multitemporal and hypertemporal remote sensing techniques(2017-05-25) Hall-Beyer, MrykaThis item contains three parts: a narrated module providing an overview of practical and theoretical aspects of using remote sensing images of multiple dates; a case study of applying Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to a regional vegetation dataset to extract temporal patterns over 6 years; and a case study of applying harmonic analysis adapted for use with temporal spatial datasets to the extraction of data informing about spatial detail of ecoregional definition. The module and case studies are intended for the use of advanced remote sensing students and researchers. Material may be used and adapted/updated, with attribution.
- ItemOpen AccessAnimacy cues facilitate 10-month-olds' categorization of novel objects with similar insides(2018-11-26) Anderson, Nina; Meagher, Kristinn; Welder, Andrea N.; Graham, SusanIn this experiment, we examined whether sensitivity to the relevance of object insides for the categorization of animate objects is in place around 10 months of age. Using an object examining paradigm, 10-month-old infants' (N = 58) were familiarized to novel objects with varying outward appearances but shared insides in one of three groups: No cues, Eyes, and Cue control. During test trials, infants were presented with a novel in-category test object followed by an out-of-category test object. When objects were presented with animacy cues (i.e., Eyes), infants categorized the objects together. In contrast, when objects were presented without any added cues or when they were presented with a shared perceptual marker (Cue control, i.e., plastic spoons placed on top of the objects), infants showed no evidence of categorization. These results indicate that by 10 months of age, eyes signal to infants that objects share some kind of uniting commonality that may not be obvious or readily perceptually available.
- ItemOpen AccessAnthropological shades of grey: Informal norms and becoming (il)legal(2012-11) Smart, Alan
- ItemOpen AccessApplication of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review(Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2015-01-05) Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World’s arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations.
- ItemOpen AccessApproaches to Teaching the History of Medicine in Late Antiquity(Regents of the University of California, 2019-12) Secord, Jared; Wright, JessicaIn this article, the authors propose that late antique medicine is a rich and versatile subject to teach in undergraduate courses, despite a seeming lack of sources and teaching resources. Following an introduction, authors Crislip, Langford, Llewellyn Ihssen, and Marx offer contributions describing their experiences teaching courses that offer some coverage of medicine in Late Antiquity. The contributions show that late antique medicine fits in easily as part of courses on magic and science, and that it lends itself to comparative or world-historical approaches. Late antique medicine likewise provides opportunities to explore the relationship of religion to science and of medicine to the humanities. The authors show that a range of approaches to late antique medicine, including disability studies and medical anthropology, can inspire productive and thoughtful responses from students, and serve as a helpful introduction to the medical humanities for aspiring healthcare professionals.
- ItemOpen AccessAre IQ scores valid for children who are poor readers?(American Psychological Association, 1993-01) Kline, Rex Bryan; Graham, Susan; Lachar, David
- ItemOpen AccessAre “Nudges” Manipulative? Evaluating Libertarian Moralism as a Solution to Global Poverty(University of Calgary, 2016) Lee, Mark S; Habib, Allen
- ItemOpen AccessArt/ificial intelligence: a short bibliography on AI and the arts(1990-01) Zach, Richard; Widmer, Gerhard; Trappl, Robert