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Title: Giardia duodenalis: New Research Developments in Pathophysiology, Pathogenesis, and Virulence Factors
Authors: Buret, Andre G.
Amat, Christina B.
Manko, Anna
Beatty, Jennifer K.
Halliez, Marie C. M.
Bhargava, Amol
Motta, Jean-Paul
Cotton, James A.
Keywords: Giardia;Pathogenesis;Immuno-modulation;Microbia;Post-infectious;Pathophysiology
Issue Date: 11-Jul-2015
Publisher: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
Abstract: Giardia duodenalis is a very common, ubiquitous, intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Of the eight distinct genetic assemblages known to date, assemblages A and B are infectious to humans. Giardia is the most commonly recognized cause of traveller’s diarrhea. Giardiasis impairs weight gain and is responsible for a variety of extra-intestinal and post-infectious complications, including post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue, failure to thrive, and cognitive impairment. Giardiasis occurs in the absence of invasion of the intestinal tissues by the trophozoites and in the absence of any overt inflammatory cell infiltration, with the exception of a modest increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes and mast cells. In endemic parts of the World where the infection is often concurrent with bacterial enteritis causing inflammation-driven diarrheal disease, giardiasis appears to be protective against diarrhea. Recent observations have demonstrated that this effect may be due to a direct immuno-modulating effect of the parasite via its cathepsin B cysteine protease which cleaves pro-inflammatory CXCL8. No known toxin has yet been directly implicated in the pathophysiology of giardiasis. Diarrhea in giardiasis is mostly malabsorptive in nature, rather than hypersecretory. Findings from ongoing research indicate that the post-infectious effects of giardiasis may be due to microbiota dysbiosis induced by the parasite during the acute phase of infection.
Appears in Collections:Buret, Andre G.

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