- ItemOpen AccessReconceptualizing Integrated Knowledge Translation goals: a case study on basic and clinical science investigating the causes and consequences of food allergy(2023-09-27) Dixon, Jenna; Shantz, Emily; Clarke, Ann E.; Elliott, Susan J.Abstract Background Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) and other forms of research co-production are increasingly recognized as valuable approaches to knowledge creation as a way to better facilitate the implementation of scientific findings. However, the nature of some scientific work can preclude direct knowledge to action as a likely outcome. Do IKT approaches have value in such cases? Methods This study used a qualitative case study approach to better understand the function of IKT in a non-traditional application: basic and clinical science investigating the causes and consequences of food allergy. Building off previous baseline findings, data were obtained through in-depth interviews with project scientists and steering committee members and complemented by researcher observation. Data were analyzed through an integrated approach to understand how well participants perceived the stipulated project IKT outcomes had been met and to better understand the relationship between different forms of IKT goals, outcomes, and impacts. Results We propose a conceptual model which builds temporal continuity into the IKT work and understands success beyond truncated timelines of any one project. The model proposes project IKT goals be conceptualized through three metaphorical tower blocks: foundational (changing the culture for both scientists and knowledge-users), laying the groundwork (building relationships, networks and sparking scientific inquiry), and putting scientific knowledge to action. Based on this model, this case study demonstrated notable success at the foundational and intermediate blocks, though did not turn basic and clinical research knowledge into actionable outcomes within the project timespan. Conclusions We find that current IKT literature which situates success as filling a knowledge to action gap is conceptually inadequate for understanding the full contributions of IKT activities. This work highlights the need for building cultural and scientific familiarity with IKT in order to better enable knowledge to action translation. Improving understanding and communication of science and empowering knowledge-users to engage with the research agenda are long-term strategies to build towards knowledge implementation and lay the ground work for many future research projects.
- ItemOpen AccessThe orchid seed coat: a developmental and functional perspective(2023-09-27) Lee, Yung-I.; Yeung, Edward C.Abstract Orchid seeds are 'dust-like.' The seed coat is usually thin, with only one to a few cell layers. It originates from the integuments formed during ovule development. In orchids, the outer integument is primarily responsible for forming a mature seed coat. The inner integument usually fails to develop after fertilization, becomes compressed, and collapses over the expanding embryo. Hence, the seed coat is formed from the funiculus, chalaza, and outer integumentary cells. The outermost layer of the seed coat, the testa, is lignified, usually at the radial and inner tangential walls. The subepidermal thin-walled layer(s), the tegmen, subsequently cold, resulting in seeds having only a single layer of seed coat cells. In some species, cells of the inner integument remain alive with the ability to synthesize and accumulate lipidic and or phenolic compounds in their walls covering the embryo. This cover is called the 'carapace,' a protective shield contributing to the embryo's added protection. A developmental and functional perspective of the integuments and seed coat during seed development and germination is presented in this review.
- ItemOpen AccessClinical practice guideline recommendations for diagnosis and management of anxiety and depression in hospitalized adults with delirium: a systematic review(2023-09-25) Poulin, Therese G.; Jaworska, Natalia; Stelfox, Henry T.; Fiest, Kirsten M.; Moss, Stephana J.Abstract Background Delirium commonly occurs in hospitalized adults. Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can co-occur with delirium, and can be recognized and managed by clinicians using recommendations found in methodological guiding statements called Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs). The specific aims of this review were to:  synthesize CPG recommendations for the diagnosis and management of anxiety, depression, and PTSD in adults with delirium in acute care; and  identify recent published literature in addition to those identified and reported in a 2017 review on delirium CPG recommendations and quality. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and 21 sites on the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies listed in the Health Grey Matters Lite tool were searched from inception to February 12, 2021. Selected CPGs focused on delirium in acute care, were endorsed by an international scientific society or governmental organization, and contained at least one recommendation for the diagnosis or management of delirium. Two reviewers independently extracted data in duplicate and independently assessed CPG quality using the AGREE-II tool. Narrative synthesis of CPG recommendations was conducted. Results Title and abstract screening was completed on 7611 records. Full-text review was performed on 197 CPGs. The final review included 27 CPGs of which 7 (26%) provided recommendations for anxiety (4/7, 57%), depression (5/7, 71%), and PTSD (1/7, 14%) in delirium. Twenty CPGs provided recommendations for delirium only (e.g., assess patient regularly, avoid use of benzodiazepines). Recommendations for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders with delirium included using evidence-based diagnostic criteria and standardized screening tools. Recommendations for the management of psychiatric disorders with delirium included pharmacological (e.g., anxiolytics, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., promoting patient orientation using clocks). Guideline quality varied: the lowest was Applicability (mean = 36%); the highest Clarity of Presentation (mean = 76%). Conclusions There are few available evidence-based CPGs to facilitate appropriate diagnosis and management of anxiety, depression, and PTSD in patients with delirium in acute care. Future guideline developers should incorporate evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and management of these psychiatric disorders in delirium. Systematic review registration Registration number: PROSPERO (CRD42021237056)
- ItemOpen AccessAssociation of drug overdoses and user characteristics of Canada’s national mobile/virtual overdose response hotline: the National Overdose Response Service (NORS)(2023-09-27) Viste, Dylan; Rioux, William; Cristall, Nora; Orr, Taylor; Taplay, Pamela; Morris-Miller, Lisa; Ghosh, S. M.Abstract Background Several novel overdose response technology interventions, also known as mobile overdose response services (MORS), have emerged as adjunct measures to reduce the harms associated with the drug poisoning epidemic. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the characteristics and outcomes of individuals utilizing one such service, the National Overdose Response Service (NORS). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using NORS call logs from December 2020 to April 2023 imputed by operators. A variety of variables were examined including demographics, substance use and route, location, and call outcomes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated around variables of interest to test the association between key indicators and drug poisonings. Results Of the 6528 completed calls on the line, 3994 (61.2%) were for supervised drug consumption, 1703 (26.1%) were for mental health support, 354 (5.42%) were for harm reduction education or resources, and 477 (7.31%) were for other purposes. Overall, there were 77 (1.18%) overdose events requiring a physical/ in-person intervention. Of the total calls, 3235 (49.5%) were from women, and 1070 (16.3%) were from people who identified as gender diverse. Calls mostly originated from urban locations (n = 5796, 88.7%) and the province of Ontario (n = 4137, 63.3%). Odds ratios indicate that using opioids (OR 6.72, CI 95% 3.69–13.52), opioids in combination with methamphetamine (OR 9.70, CI 95% 3.24–23.06), multiple consumption routes (OR 6.54, CI 95% 2.46–14.37), and calls occurring in British Columbia (B.C) (OR 3.55, CI 95% 1.46–7.33) had a significantly higher likelihood of a drug poisoning. No deaths were recorded and only 3 false callouts had occurred. The overall drug poisoning event incidence to phone calls was 1.2%. Conclusion NORS presents a complimentary opportunity to access harm reduction services for individuals that prefer to use alone or face barriers to accessing in-person supervised consumption services especially gender minorities with high-risk use patterns.
- ItemOpen AccessResults from the BETTER WISE trial: a pragmatic cluster two arm parallel randomized controlled trial for primary prevention and screening in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic(2023-09-28) Manca, Donna P.; Fernandes, Carolina; Lofters, Aisha; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Shea-Budgell, Melissa; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; McBrien, Kerry; Krueger, Paul; Wong, Tracy; Grunfeld, EvaAbstract Background Cancer and chronic diseases are a major cost to the healthcare system and multidisciplinary models with access to prevention and screening resources have demonstrated improvements in chronic disease management and prevention. Research demonstrated that a trained Prevention Practitioner (PP) in multidisciplinary team settings can improve achievement of patient level prevention and screening actions seven months after the intervention. Methods We tested the effectiveness of the PP intervention in a pragmatic two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Patients aged 40–65 were randomized at the physician level to an intervention group or to a wait-list control group. The intervention consisted of a patient visit with a PP. The PP received training in prevention and screening and use of the BETTER WISE tool kit. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using a composite outcome of the proportion of the eligible prevention and screening actions achieved between intervention and control groups at 12-months. Results Fifty-nine physicians were recruited in Alberta, Ontario, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Of the 1,005 patients enrolled, 733 (72.9%) completed the 12-month analysis. The COVID-19 pandemic occurred during the study time frame at which time nonessential prevention and screening services were not available and in-person visits with the PP were not allowed. Many patients and sites did not receive the intervention as planned. The mean composite score was not significantly higher in patients receiving the PP intervention as compared to the control group. To understand the impact of COVID on the project, we also considered a subset of patients who had received the intervention and who attended the 12-month follow-up visit before COVID-19. This assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of the BETTER visits, similar to the findings in previous BETTER studies. Conclusions We did not observe an improvement in cancer and chronic disease prevention and screening (CCDPS) outcomes at 12 months after a BETTER WISE prevention visit: due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was not implemented as planned. Though benefits were described in those who received the intervention before COVID-19, the sample size was too small to make conclusions. This study may be a harbinger of a substantial decrease and delay in CCDPS activities under COVID restrictions. Trial registration ISRCTN21333761. Registered on 19/12/2016. http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN21333761 .